1961 (The People's Chronology)
President John F. Kennedy takes office January 20 with an inaugural address that includes the words, "Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and success of liberty . . . And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for yousk what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man."
President Kennedy authorizes the CIA January 28 to proceed with former president Dwight Eisenhower's plan to invade Cuba with an army of 1,200 exiles. Fidel Castro has demanded that the U.S. embassy staff at Havana be reduced to 11; Washington has severed diplomatic relations January 3 (see 1960). Castro merges his 26th of July Movement into the Organizaciones Revolucionarias Integredas, but Cubans emigrate in droves and two major Cuban opposition groups set up a revolutionary council at New York in late March with former premier José Miro Cardona as president. He urges all Cubans to revolt against Castro, and Foreign Minister Raul Roa charges at the UN April 15 that U.S. and Latin American forces are preparing to invade Cuba. Sen. Fulbright and others have advised President Kennedy against an invasion. The CIA's budget for what was intended to be a covert operation has mushroomed from $4.4 million to $46 million, but few of the agency's officers in charge of training speak Spanish or have Latin-American background knowledge; the invasion force has been poorly trained by the CIA in Florida, Louisiana, Nicaragua, and Guatemala; the agency has failed to advise the White House that success of the operation has become dubious.
CIA pilots flying B-26 bombers destroy some Cuban war planes on the ground April 15, but President Kennedy has refused to approve a full U.S. air strike against Cuba's air force. Some 1,500 Cuban exiles land at Playa Girón near the Bahia de los Cochinos April 17 in an inept and ill-supported effort to overthrow the Castro government, whose communist government just 90 miles from the Florida coast is considered a beachhead for Soviet influence in the Western Hemisphere. Fidel Castro has been alerted to the coming invasion by his newly-established secret intelligence agency (the Dirección de Inteligencia, or DGI), created with help from the Soviet KGB. Premier Khrushchev demands April 18 that the invasion of Cuba be halted, he promises to aid Cuba, President Kennedy replies that the United States will not permit outside military intervention, a U.S. M-41 tank destroys a Cuban ambulance with one round, the commandos take no prisoners, and Castro's forces repel the invaders, of whom 114 are killed and 1,189 captured (the others either have not landed or make their way back to safety with help from two U.S. rescue teams and Cuban frogmen). The Bay of Pigs invasion ends in disaster and embarrassment for the United States. "Victory has a hundred fathers," Kennedy says, "but defeat is an orphan." Premier Castro has had former colleagues rounded up for speaking out against him and many of them are executed at Havana April 19. President Kennedy asserts April 20 that the United States will take steps to halt communist expansion if U.S. security is threatened; Premier Castro calls Cuba a "socialist country" May 1; he announces May 17 that Cuba will exchange prisoners taken at the Bay of Pigs for 500 U.S. bulldozers, but negotiations break down June 30. President Kennedy gives approval November 3 to a covert CIA plan (Operation Mongoose) headed by his 35-year-old brother Robert as attorney general to rid Cuba of Castro, and Castro declares himself a Marxist-Leninist December 2; he announces formation of a united party to bring communism to Cuba (see 1962).
El Salvador has another military coup in January (see 1960). Lieut. Col. Julio Adalberto Rivera takes power, will be elected president next year, and will dismantle the Partido Revolucionario de Unificación Democrática organized by Oscar Osario, replacing it with the Partido de Conciliación Nacional (National Conciliation Party) that will control the government for the next 18 years.
Idealistic U.S. men and women with college degrees sign up for the Peace Corps of Young Americans for Overseas Service, created March 1 by President Kennedy. The president's Westminster, Md.-born brother-in-law (Robert) Sargent Shriver, 45, heads the Peace Corps, whose volunteers will work to improve education, agriculture, and living standards in Latin America, Asia, Africa, Oceania, andventuallyastern Europe.
Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo is killed on the outskirts of Ciudad Trujillo May 30 at age 70 by an eight-man assassination team that has caught the generalissimo unguarded on a deserted stretch of highway; he has controlled Dominican Republic directly or indirectly since 1930, using his position to suppress opposition, seize property, and amass a fortune estimated at about $500 million. Ciudad Trujillo is renamed Santo Domingo, but the coup attempt fails, Trujillo's son Ramfis takes over, and by late November most of the assassins are tortured and killed along with their families. Ramfi flees under U.S. military guard November 19, but his departure does not restore democracy (see 1965).
Haiti's president François "Papa Doc" Duvalier manipulates legislative elections to have his term extended to 1967 (see 1957). Stricken with a heart attack 2 years ago, he had his chief aid Clément Barbot imprisoned after his recovery, the corruption in his regime and its repressive measures precipitate a cutoff of U.S. aid, Barbot is released from prison and tries to lead an insurrection, and Duvalier has him murdered during the summer (see 1963).
British Guiana achieves full internal self government, and her minister of trade and industry Cheddi Jagan regains his office as prime minister following the election victory of his People's Progressive Party (PPP) by a narrow margin (see 1957). Half the country's population is of East Indian origin and votes as a bloc for Jagan, but his efforts to establish a socialist economy within a framework of parliamentary democracy will put him at odds with both London and Washington, a long general strike will disrupt the country's economy, and major riots will impel the British to station troops as they did in 1953 (see 1964).
President Kennedy and Premier Khrushchev confer at Vienna from June 3 to 4 and issue a joint communiqué reaffirming support for the neutrality of Laos and stating that they have discussed disarmament, a nuclear test ban, and the German question, but Kennedy is in poor health and Khrushchev concludes that he is weak. A Soviet memorandum issued June 4 urges the demilitarization of Berlin. Premier Khrushchev declares June 15 that Moscow will conclude a treaty by year's end and "rebuff" any Western move to enforce rights of access to West Berlin. London, Paris, and Washington reject Soviet proposals to make Berlin a free city. Kennedy delivers a national address July 25 proposing a 217,000-man increase in the armed forces and a $3.4 billion boost in defense spending to meet the "world-wide Soviet threat."
East German authorities close the border between East and West Berlin August 13, and the Berlin Wall erected in late August stops movement from East Berlin to West Berlin. The East German parliament has put up the high concrete wall in response to a communiqué from Warsaw Pact nations appealing for a halt in the mass exodus of East Berliners that has embarrassed communist regimes as 2,300 per day cross from east to west, with most of the emigrés young, educated people. Some 1,500 troops enter Berlin in mid-August to reinforce the Western garrison, East Berlin authorities block entry of U.S. civilians October 26, demanding that they show identity papers, U.S. and Soviet tanks move briefly to the Friedrichstrasse crossing point but are withdrawn October 28. Maltese-born British occupation force commander Gen. Rohan Delacombe, 54, will be credited with having prevented panic among the city's civilians and defused tensions between Allied and Soviet forces. Premier Khrushchev declares November 7 that he is willing to postpone settlement of the Berlin issue.
Image Pop-UpThe Berlin Wall exemplified cold war hostilities between East and West. Stalin's ghost still hung over Europe.
The Hudson Institute founded at Croton-on-Hudson, N.Y., is a right-wing "think tank" whose mission is to examine domestic social and economic issues and think about the future in unconventional ways. Bayonne, N.J.-born mathematician, physicist, and political scientist Herman Kahn, 39, worked as a mathematician for the Rand Corp. at Santa Monica, Calif., from 1948 until last year and has joined with New York-born lawyers Max Singer, 29, and Oscar M. (Melick) Ruebhausen, 49, to start the group that will move to Indianapolis after Kahn's death in 1983.
American Communist Party chairman Eugene Dennis dies at New York January 31 at age 55, but his party is virtually defunct; former Communist Party member Whittaker Chambers dies of a heart attack on his farm outside Westminster, Md., July 9 at age 60; labor organizer and U.S. Communist Party leader William Z. Foster at Moscow September 1 at age 80.
The Soviet Union resumes nuclear weapons testing September 2 after tripartite negotiations to ban such testing break down over the issue of verification with on-site inspections. The United States resumes underground testing September 15. A Joint Statement of Agreed Principles for Disarmament Negotiations signed September 20 by Soviet ambassador to the United Nations Valerian A. Zorin and U.S. ambassador John J. McCloy, now 67, outlines a program for general and complete disarmament, but Moscow resumes atmospheric testing October 30: a thermonuclear device tested in the Novaya Zemlya area off northern Russia creates a shock wave that circles the earth in 36 hours, 27 minutes. Experts estimate the power of the device at 58 megatons (57 million tons of trinitrotolueneNT) and two more shock waves follow the first.
Former Albanian king Zog I (Ahmed Zogou) dies at Suresnes, France, April 9 at age 65; former French premier Paul Ramadier at Rodez October 14 at age 83; former Italian president Luigi Einaudi at Rome October 30 at age 87.
CIA director Allen W. Dulles resigns November 29 and is succeeded by San Francisco-born construction magnate John A. McCone, 59, a hard-line Republican who has been chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission and will head the agency until 1965, working with Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy to control covert activities while upgrading the agency's status within the foreign policy and intelligence community.
Gen. Walter Bedell Smith (ret.) dies at Washington, D.C., August 9 at age 65. He served as Gen. Eisenhower's chief of staff from September 1942 until the end of World War II and headed the CIA from late 1950 to early 1953; federal judge Learned Hand dies at New York August 18 at age 89; former diplomat Sumner Welles at Bernardsville, N.J., September 24 at age 68; former House Speaker Samuel Taliaferro "Sam" Rayburn of cancer at Bonham, Texas, November 16 at age 79, having served as confidant to Presidents Roosevelt, Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy (a new Senate office building will be named in his honor); former first lady Edith Wilson dies at Washington, D.C., December 28 at age 89.
Iraq's Kurds revolt against the government of Abdul al-Karim Qasim, who promised when he took over the government in 1958 and proclaimed a republic that he would grant the Kurds a degree of autonomy (see 1963).
Syrian troops revolt September 28. The revolutionary command sets up a civilian government and proclaims independence from the United Arab Republic September 29.
Turkey establishes a second republic following a referendum and adopts a new constitution that establishes a bicameral legislature and a strong executive with promises of land reform as well as economic and social reforms: no party wins a majority in the October elections, the new General Assembly elects Gen. Cemal Gürsel president, and former premier Ismet Inönü is returned to office as head of a coalition government (but see 1963).
President Kennedy approves a counterinsurgency plan for Vietnam January 28 and in April sends a force of Green Berets that will grow to number 16,000; he sends 500 military advisers to South Vietnam in May to recommend a course of action for that country's battle against the Vietcong rebels who have infiltrated from communist North Vietnam. Des Moines-born State Department official George W. (Wildman) Ball, 51, warns the president not to become more involved in the Vietnam conflict, but Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson visits South Vietnam and recommends strong U.S. commitment to support the South Vietnamese effort. The State Department issues a report in June stating three objectives for U.S. policy: provide military support for peasants, convince South Vietnam's president Ngo Dinh Diem to implement social and economic reforms, and create a self-sustaining economy in South Vietnam. Kennedy increases the number of U.S. advisers in Vietnam from 1,000 to 16,000 November 14, he dispatches 18,000 advisers 4 days later, and a U.S. aircraft carrier soon arrives at Saigon with helicopters. There is a "clear and present danger" of communist aggression in Vietnam, the State Department reports in December, and Kennedy implements a Strategic Hamlet program of rural pacification, surrounding villages with barbed wire and guard towers to keep the Vietcong out of schools, community hospitals, and peasant homes (see 1962).
China's Premier Zhou Enlai walks out of a Soviet party congress at Moscow October 23, heralding a break in Sino-Soviet relations.
The African charter of Casablanca proclaimed January 7 announces that a NATO-like organization of African states will be established by the heads of state of Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Morocco, and the United Arab Republic, who have been meeting at Casablanca.
Former Congolese premier Patrice Lumumba is killed in Katanga Province January 17 at age 35, the Katanga government announces his death February 13, saying that hostile tribesmen murdered him, but Moscow charges UN Secretary-General Hammarskjöld with having been an "accomplice" in the murder. The UN Security Council demands an inquiry into Lumumba's death and urges use of force to prevent civil war in the Congo. Col. Mobutu returns power to President Kasavubu. The United States of the Congo is founded May 12 with her capital at Leopoldville as hostilities continue in the Congo.
UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld is killed September 18 at age 56 when his plane crashes in the Congo en route to a meeting with the governor of Katanga Moise Tshombe, whose army is fighting UN forces attempting to disarm Katanga troops. Burmese diplomat U Thant, 52, has served as acting secretary general and ordered UN commanders in the Congo to take all necessary action to restore the UN position at the Katanga capital of Elizabethville. He is unanimously elected to succeed Hammarskjöld November 3 and will hold the post until 1972. A cease-fire takes effect December 21.
Rwanda (Ruanda-Urundi in the former Belgian Congo) proclaims herself a republic January 28 and Gregoire Kayibanda is proclaimed president October 26 following new elections that have given power to the Hutu party (see 1960; Burundi, 1962).
Morocco's Muhammad V dies at Rabat February 26 at age 51 after minor surgery on his nose; having reigned as sultan since 1927 and king since 1957, he is succeeded by his 31-year-old son Moulay Hassan Muhammad ibn Yusuf, who rankled at the slow pace of government early last year, was made deputy prime minister in May, has actively run the country since then, and will reign until 1999 as Hassan II, suppressing dissent with brutal oppression.
Algiers is seized April 21 by insurgent French troops led by Gen. Maurice Challe, loyal French troops crush the insurrection and reoccupy the city April 26, the rebel leaders are tried and convicted July 11, and Gen. Salan and others are sentenced in absentia to death as Algerian independence talks proceed (see 1958). French police arrest Algerian nationalist Djamila Boupacha, 19, on charges of having bombed a café near the University of Algiers. She will be tortured in prison and sexually abused before her release through a general amnesty next year but will continue to fight for independence (see 1962).
Sierra Leone gains independence April 27 (the East African monarchy will become a republic in 1971). Diamonds were discovered in the country's Kono district in 1930, British colonial authorities tried at the time to seal off the region and restrict mining operations to government-sponsored private monopolies, but the diamonds are widely scattered in rivers and streams, not embedded deep underground, illegal mining has become rampant, and illegal diamonds may account for as much as 20 percent of world diamond production (see commerce, 1972; civil war, 1992).
Tanganyika gains full internal self-government May 1, with Julius Kambarage Nyerere, 39, as premier (see Tanzania, 1964).
Angola begins an insurrection against the Portuguese; hostilities will continue until Lisbon offers independence in 1974.
South Africa severs her ties with the British Commonwealth May 31 and becomes a republic with Charles R. Swart as president (see human rights [Sharpeville massacre], 1960). Ghana refuses to recognize the new Afrikaner-controlled republic, whose prime minister H. F. Verwoerd survived an attempt on his life last year (see 1958; human rights, 1963).
The Maharanee of Jaipur wins election to India's Parliament by one of the largest pluralities in the nation's history. Born in London 42 years ago, raised in the Himalayan foothills, and educated both in England, at a Swiss finishing school, and at Shantiniketan University in Bolpur, Tayatri Devi studied shorthand and typing before her marriage to the maharajah in 1940 and has started Jaipur's first public school for girls. She has fought against purdahhe traditional concealment of women.
A South Korean military junta overthrows the democratic government May 16. The "anticommunist" junta decrees absolute military dictatorship June 6, and Gen. Chung Hee Park, 44, takes over July 3, beginning a repressive regime that will continue even after his assassination in 1979.
Philippines president Carlos Garcia loses his bid for reelection to Liberal and Progressive coalition candidate Diosdado Macapagal, 51, who has campaigned against the political corruption that has been rampant in the islands and wins by a landslide. A lawyer who helped the resistance against Japanese occupation authorities, Macapagal will serve until 1965, pushing through the country's first land-reform legislation against opposition by the Nacionalistas who continue to dominate the legislature, placing the peso on the free currency-exchange market, and working (albeit ineffectually) to stimulate the economy, curb tax evasion, and root out graft. Pardido Nacionalista founder and former Philippines president Sergio Osmeña dies at Manila October 19 at age 83.
The Twenty-Third Amendment to the U.S. Constitution ratified March 29 allows Washington, D.C., residents to vote in presidential elections and provides for congressional representation of the district, whose population is now largely black.
Human Rights, Social Justice
Psychologist David P. Boder dies at Chicago January 1 at age 74, having introduced the word Holocaust after interviewing 109 death-camp survivors in 1946. Former Nazi concentration camp director Adolf Eichmann goes on trial beginning April 11 at a Jerusalem cultural center (see 1946). Now 55, he had been living in Argentina under the name Ricardo Klement when he was captured in May of last year after a 15-year manhunt; Israeli agent Peter Z. Malkin grabbed him as he stepped off a bus in a Buenos Aires suburb and spirited him away to a safe house by taxi. Even most Israelis have known very little about the horrors of the death camps, a bullet-proof glass enclosure protects Eichmann in the courtroom, his 4-month trial brings the facts of the Holocaust to world attention, and although he tries to persuade the court that he was merely acting on orders, it sentences Eichmann to be hanged (see 1962).
The Jewish Documentation Center opens at Vienna under the direction of Simon Wiesenthal, now 52, whose files were shipped to Israel in 1954 (see 1947). Encouraged by the arrest of Adolf Eichmann, Wiesenthal will enlist the cooperation of Israeli, West German, and other governments to track down more than 1,000 former Gestapo agents, SS officers, and other Nazi war criminals and bring them to trial, mostly in West Germany.
The UN General Assembly condemns South Africa's apartheid policies April 13 (see Sharpeville massacre, 1960). A South African court acquits apartheid foe Helen Joseph of treason after a marathon trial (see 1956), but as a banned person she will not be permitted for the next 10 years to receive visitors on weekends or at nights or to socialize with more than one person at a time (see 1978). Nelson R. Mandela, Walter Sisulu, and other African National Congress leaders conclude that the white government will respond only to violence and set up a militant wing under the name Umkhonto we Size (MK), or "Spear of the Nation," whose leadership begins a campaign of sabotage December 16 with the announcement, "The time comes in the life of any nation when there remains only two choices: submit or fight . . . We shall not submit and we have no choice but to hit back by all means within our power in defense of our people, our future, and our freedom" (see 1962).
California-born Georgia judge Elbert P. (Parr) Tuttle, 64, New Orleans-born judge John Minor Wisdom, 56, Texas judge John R. Brown, and Alabama judge Richard T. Rives of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit at New Orleans strike down a Louisiana school-closing law after the St. Helen Parish has voted overwhelmingly to close its public schools rather than submit to desegregation in accordance with the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education (all but Rives are Republicans). The court's jurisdiction includes Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and Texas as well as Louisiana (see Meredith, 1962).
"Freedom Riders" begin a civil-rights demonstration at Birmingham, Ala., May 4 in a move organized by the biracial Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to overturn segregation practices in the Deep South (see 1960). Blacks sit in the front of the Greyhound bus, whites in the rear, and when they reach a bus station the whites go into the black rest room and vice versa; all have been trained in nonviolent ways to behave and protect themselves. A white mob attacks the Freedom Riders May 20 at Montgomery, Ala., local police permit the mob to beat the riders with iron pipes, U.S. marshals sent in by Attorney General Kennedy restore order and maintain safe passage for travelers in interstate commerce (National Guard general Henry V. Graham, 45, tells the Freedom Riders, "This may be a hazardous journey. We have taken every precaution to protect you. And I sincerely wish you all a safe journey"). Similar demonstrations occur in Louisiana and other states (see Supreme Court, 1962).
Atlanta students Charlayne Hunter, 19, and Hamilton "Hamp" Holmes, 20, defy racist epithets as they enter the University of Georgia at Athens, ending segregation at the school pursuant to a federal court order issued January 6 by Chief Justice Elbert P. Tuttle of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. Daughter of a U.S. Army chaplain, Hunter has transferred from Wayne State University in Detroit. She hopes for a career in journalism and, she will later write, has "studied the comic-strip character Brenda Starr as I might have studied a journalism textbook" (see communications, 1940; Nonfiction [Hunter-Gault book], 1992).
Septima Clark joins the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) as director of education and teaching (see 1956). Now 63, the "grand lady of civil rights" will defy Ku Klux Klan and White Citizens' Council intimidation as she works to increase literacy and citizenship training.
Rwanda grants women the right to vote on the same basis as men.
Amnesty International has its beginnings in a front-page article published May 28 in the Observer by English barrister and civil-liberties activist Peter Benenson, 38, whose piece entitled "The Forgotten Prisoner" is reprinted in papers worldwide. Benenson has read about two Portuguese students who were imprisoned for raising their glasses in a toast to freedom at a Lisbon restaurant, his article will lead to the establishment of Amnesty International chapters in more than 60 countries, and they will be instrumental in securing the release of political prisoners.
Social reformer-economist Emily Greene Balch dies at Cambridge, Mass., January 9 at age 94; suffragist Frederick W. Pethick-Lawrence, Baron Pethick-Lawrence, at London September 10 at age 89.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules unanimously November 20 to uphold a Florida law exempting women from jury duty unless they volunteer. The right to an impartially selected jury "does not entitle one accused of crime to a jury tailored to the circumstances of the particular case, whether relating to the sex or other condition of the defendant, or the nature of the charges to be tried," says the Court. Mrs. Gwendolyn Hoyt was convicted by an all-male jury in 1958 of murdering her husband with a baseball bat, and the Court upholds her conviction. Three states (Alabama, Mississippi, and South Carolina) do not permit women to serve on juries, and 18 allow women to be excused from jury duty on the basis of their gender (but see 1975).
President Kennedy delivers his first State of the Union Address to Congress January 30 and says, "I now invite all nationsncluding the Soviet Uniono join with us in developing a weather prediction program, in a new communications satellite program (see communications, 1962), and in preparation for probing the distant planets of Mars and Venus, probes which may someday unlock the secrets of the universe."
The first manned space ship circles the earth April 12 in 89.1 minutes at an altitude of 187.7 miles. Soviet astronaut Yuri Aleskeyevich Gagarin, 27, makes the orbit in the space vehicle Vostok I, and astronaut (or cosmonaut) Gherman Titov, orbits the earth 17 times less than 4 months later (see Glenn, 1962).
Navy test pilot Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr., 37, makes the first U.S. manned space expedition May 5, reaching an altitude of 116.5 miles in a 15-minute suborbital flight aboard the Freedom 7 capsule. President Kennedy vows in an address to Congress May 25 that the United States will put a man on the moon and return him to earth by the end of the decade (see 1969).
The 1-year-old National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launches Ranger I from Cape Canaveral August 23 (see 1958); the first in a series of nine unmanned spacecraft to investigate the moon, it fails to leave Earth's orbit (see 1962).
President Eisenhower warns in a January 17 farewell TV address against the "military-industrial-complex" that works to maintain high levels of spending for the defense establishment; he calls for a "balance between the clearly necessary and the comfortably desirable," "between cost and hoped-for advantage," and "between the actions of the moment and the national welfare of the future," but President-elect Kennedy has campaigned on a promise to close a phantom "missile gap" and will push through measures that increase military spending. By the end of the century the United States will have spent more than $5 trillion on the military despite the lack of any serious threat to national defense.
South Africa adopts the decimal system; the rand becomes legal tender February 14.
Britain's Chancellor of the Exchequer Selwyn B. Lloyd, 57, announces an austerity program July 17 to improve the nation's trade deficit. His emergency budget imposes a hold on wages and raises the bank rate from 5 percent to 7 percent.
An Alliance for Progress announced by President Kennedy in March will spur economic and social development of Latin-American countries that cooperate with the United States; the Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA) comes into force June 2 (see 1960); agrarian reform and tax reform are major objectives of the new Alianza, created at Punta del Este, Uruguay, in August by an agreement signed with 19 Latin-American countries that receive a promise of $10 billion in U.S. aid over a 10-year period.
U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Adlai E. Stevenson urges that the developed countries of the world each contribute 1 percent of their Gross National Product to the development of the emerging nations.
Amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 signed into law by President Kennedy May 5 take effect September 3, raising the minimum wage 15¢ to $1.15 per hour and extending it to 3.6 million workers (see 1956). Included are not only employees engaged in interstate commerce or in producing goods for interstate commerce but also people employed in large retail and service enterprises, local transit, local construction, and gas stations (see 1963).
A Louis Harris poll shows that 23 percent of U.S. working women work to support themselves, 18 percent to support their families, 49 percent for extra money, 9 percent for "something interesting to do."
New York's First National City Bank offers negotiable fixed-term certificates of deposit (CD) paying a higher rate of interest than is permitted on savings accounts. Citibank's Connecticut-born executive vice-president Walter B. (Bigelow) Wriston, 41, has worked with another executive to develop the CD, which are initially offered to corporations in denominations of $100,000 and higher; other banks soon follow suit, and CDs will become available in denominations as low as $500 as depositors seek ways to keep inflation from eroding their savings.
The U.S. Gross National Product reaches $521 billion, up 60 percent since World War II as measured in constant dollars.
The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) created by President Kennedy in an executive order signed November 1 is an independent federal agency that will provide economic and humanitarian assistance to support U.S. foreign policy worldwide. It will grow by the end of the century to have nearly 7,000 employees in about 85 offices, some of them civil servants, some foreign service officers, some foreign nationals.
Wall Street's Dow Jones Industrial Average closes December 29 at 731.14, up from 615.89 at the end of 1960.
Switzerland's Grande Dixence Dam is completed on the Dixence River in Vaud canton. Built in stages as the alpine working season permitted, the gravity dam is 285 meters (935 feet) high, 695 meters (2,280 feet) wide at its crest, and will remain the world's tallest dam until 1980.
The S.S. Canberra launched for the Cunard Line is a 44,807-ton passenger liner measuring 818.5 feet in length.
A Sabena passenger plane crashes outside Brussels February 15, killing 72 on board (including the U.S. figure-skating team) plus a farmer on the ground.
The YHC-1B Chinook helicopter introduced by Boeing Aircraft is a medium-lift craft with tandem rotors (see politics [Piasecki], 1949). Boeing acquired the Philadelphia-based Vertol Co. last year, U.S. troops will use the Chinook in combat beginning in 1965, and by 1968 Chinooks will have logged 161,000 hours of flying time, carrying 22.4 million people and 1.3 million tons of cargo (see politics, 1973).
London gets its first minicabs March 6 as Carline of Wimbledon begins to supplement the city's large, comfortable Austin taxicabs. Automotive engineer John Cooper, 37, has created the highly maneuverable sedan, basing it on a drawing sketched on the back of a cigarette pack by British Motor Corp. boss Sir Alec Issigonis, and a souped-up version gains quick popularity as a private car for "Swinging London."
Britain's 65-year-old Leyland Motors Ltd. acquires the 58-year-old company that has made Triumph motorcars since 1923 and reenters the motorcar business (see Rover, 1966).
The Department of Justice indicts General Motors for having forced most U.S. railroads to buy locomotives made by GM's Electro-Motive Division or risk having GM cars shipped by other carriers. The criminal proceedings will be dropped in December 1964.
Former General Motors president Charles E. ("Engine Charlie") Wilson dies at Norwood, La., September 26 at age 71.
The United States has 11.7 million trucks, up from 8.62 million in 1951.
Physicist Murray Gell-Mann and Israeli physicist Yuval Ne'eman, 36, independently resolve the issue of atomic particle proliferation with what Gell-Mann calls the "Eightfold Way," based on Buddha's eightfold path to truth. Many of the known particles, they realize, can be fit into a series of families based on an abstract mathematical construct called the su(3) group (see 1962).
Physicist Erwin Schrödinger dies of asthma at Vienna January 4 at age 73; Harvard Nobel physicist Percy W. Bridgman by his own hand at Randolph, N.H., August 20 at age 79 (he had terminal cancer).
English biochemist Peter Mitchell, 40, of the University of Edinburgh publishes a paper in Nature suggesting that cells can store energy by creating an electric field or a proton gradient across a vesicular membrane and use it to send nerve signals and move muscles. He argues that this principle explains adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, cell movement (flagellar rotation), and solute accumulations (or expulsions), and his chemiosomotic theory that energy in plants and animals is used to generate electrical energy rather than being simply a chemical reaction opens the door for understanding energy transformation by membrane systems.
South African-born biologist Sydney Brenner, 34, French-born biologist François Jacob, 41, and Matthew Meselson, now 31, confirm the existence of a messenger RNA by using phage-infected bacteria to show that ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis (see Ochoa, 1955; Stahl, Meselson, 1958; Khorana, 1966).
Britain's minister of health Enoch Powell, 48, increases British Health Service charges February 1.
The American Medical Association endorses the Sabin live-virus oral vaccine for poliomyelitis (see 1960). Within 5 years the Sabin vaccine will have supplanted the Salk vaccine and polio epidemics will cease to plague much of the world.
Phocomelia (literally, seal-flipper limbs) deforms 302 newborn infants in West Germany (see 1960). A Hamburg physician notes that mothers of several of the infants have taken the tranquilizer drug thalidomide in the early stages of their pregnancy, and the German Ministry of Health issues a warning to physicians (see 1962).
Acetaminophen tablets gain FDA approval in July as an over-the-counter alternative to aspirin. Research by New York-born biochemist and pharmacologist Julius Axelrod, 49, Swedish physiologist Ulf (Svante) von Euler-(Chelpin), 57, and German-born British biophysicist Bernard Katz, 50, has shown that a mixture of aspirin, phenacetin, and caffeine can work as well as aspirin with virtually no side effects. Introduced under the brand name Tylenol by McNeill Laboratories division of Johnson & Johnson, the analgesic has heretofore been available only by prescription but is far less likely to cause gastric irritation than aspirin, reduces fever, is effective against headaches and toothaches, but does not have some of acetylsalicylic acid's other properties (see 1982).
Ceylon gives up spraying houses with DDT and will soon have a major malaria epidemic (see environment [Rachel Carson book], 1962).
"Jungle doctor" Thomas A. Dooley dies of cancer at New York January 18 at age 34; bacteriologist Jules Bordet at Brussels April 6 at age 90; psychologist Arnold N. Gesell at New Haven, Conn., May 29 at age 80; psychologist-psychiatrist Carl Jung of heart and circulatory ailments at Zürich June 6 at age 85; tuberculosis vaccine co-developer Camille Guérin at Paris June 9 at age 88; Band-Aid inventor Earl Dickson at New Brunswick, N.J., September 21 at age 68.
The Genesis Flood by Washington, D.C.-born Indiana evangelical theologian John C. (Clement) Whitcomb, 37, and Dallas-born civil engineer Henry M. (Morris) Morris (Jr.), 42, tries to refute Darwinian ideas of evolution; the book will have wide influence on creationists, who share the belief of those 19th-century critics of Charles Darwin who asserted that scripture should be interpreted literally.
Moral Re-Armament founder Frank Buchman dies at Freudenstadt, Germany, August 7 at age 83 and is buried at Allentown, Pa.
President Eisenhower warns in his farewell TV address January 17 that universities will cease to be free if they accept federal funds that will tend to corrupt historians and force compromises with truth.
President Kennedy says in his first State of the Union message January 30 that federal grants for education can be delayed no longer: "Our classrooms contain 2 million more children than they properly have room for, taught by 90,000 teachers not properly qualified to teach."
The U.S. radar station Texas Tower #4 goes down in a storm January 15 about 70 miles off the coast of New York and New Jersey. Part of the Early Warning Detection System, the 3,200-ton structure was floated into position in the summer of 1957, and although it was built to withstand waves up to 60 feet high and winds of up to 125 miles per hour it has become unstable, most of its crew has been removed while workmen filled its 300-foot legs with sand and concrete, but all 27 men on the rig are lost.
Journalist Dorothy Thompson dies of a heart attack at Lisbon January 31 at age 66.
Lynn, Mass.-born physicist Elias Snitzer, 36, of American Optical Corp. publishes a paper that pioneers transmission of signals by means of fiber optics (see Bell's Photophone, 1880; Kapany, 1956). European and U.S. engineers and scientists have used bent-glass rods to illuminate body cavities for purposes of medical examination; Snitzer theorizes that a single-mode fiber only 0.005 inch thick with a much thinner core could carry light with only one wave-guide mode, and while such a fiber will serve well enough for medical instruments it has a light loss of one decibel per meter. His fiber and erbium-doped amplifier will nevertheless lead to a widespread replacement of copper wires with glass fibers (see Kao, 1964).
Britain's Westward Television begins broadcasting April 29, Border Television September 1, Grampion Television September 30 (for northern Scotland). Parliament authorizes BBC to establish a self-contained, distinctive world service and to extend its broadcasting hours for the production of more educational programs for adults.
U.S. television programming is a "vast wasteland," says Milwaukee-born FCC chairman Newton N. (Norman) Minow, 35, in a May 9 address to the National Association of Broadcasters convention at Washington, D.C. "I invite you to sit down in front of your television set when your station goes on the air, and stay there. You will see a vast wasteland procession of game shows, violence, audience participation shows, formula comedies about totally unbelievable families . . . blood and thunder . . . mayhem, violence, sadism, murder . . . private eyes, more violence, and cartoons . . . and, endlessly, commercialsany screaming, cajoling, and offending" (see Britain, 1962).
Radio pioneer Lee De Forest dies at Hollywood, Calif., June 30 at age 87, having seen television become a commercial success despite the doubts he expressed in 1926.
The Helvetica typeface introduced by Swiss designers Edouard Hoffman and Max Meidinger is a deliberately anonymous font that will be widely used by European modernists.
IBM introduces the Selectric typewriter designed by Boston-born architect Eliot F. (Fette) Noyes, 51 (see computer, 1955; electric typewriter, 1908). It has a moving "golf ball" cluster of interchangeable type, will be linked in 1964 to a magnetic tape recorder that permits automated, individually addressed original copies of any letter, and by 1975 will account for an estimated 70 to 80 percent of the electric typewriter market (see 1991; word processor, 1974).
The Vincent Astor estate sells Newsweek magazine to the Washington Post, whose president Philip L. Graham, now 46, is the son-in-law of the late Eugene Meyer (see 1937).
Nonfiction: Nobody Knows My Name (essays) by James Baldwin, who returned to the United States from France in 1957 but will live much of his life abroad; Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism: A Study of "Brainwashing" in China by Brooklyn, N.Y.-born psychiatrist Robert Jay Lifton, 35, who begins teaching at Yale; Pattern and Growth in Personality by Harvard psychologist Gordon W. Allport; Reconstruction after the Civil War by historian John Hope Franklin; The Burden of Southern History by C. Vann Woodward, who leaves Johns Hopkins to become Sterling Professor of History at Yale; A Study of History (12th and final volume) by historian Arnold Toynbee, now 72, whose first volume appeared in 1934; The Origins of the Second World War by A. J. P. Taylor, who creates a controversy by saying that the conflict could have been avoided had Britain and France not vacillated between appeasing Adolf Hitler and standing up to him; The Rise and Fall of Adolf Hitler by William L. Shirer; Citizen Hearst: A Biography of William Randolph Hearst by W. A. Swanberg; Madness and Civilization (Histoire de la Folie) by French philosopher Michel Foucault, 35; The Useless Sex (Il sesso inutile: viaggo intorno all donna) by Italian journalist Oriana Fallaci, 31; The Cloud Forest: A Chronicle of the South American Wilderness by Peter Matthiessen; The Forest People by English-born American Museum of Natural History anthropologist Colin M. (Macmillan) Turnbull, 36, who has done field work among central Africa's Mbuti Pygmies and Ik hunters; The Wretched of the Earth (Les damnés de la terre) by Martinique-born writer Frantz Fanon, who dies of leukemia at Washington, D.C., December 6 at age 36.
Fiction: Franny and Zoey by J. D. Salinger; Catch-22 by Brooklyn, N.Y.-born novelist Joseph Heller, 38, who has taken 7 years to write his work about a World War II bomber group that is a metaphor for U.S. society: "There was only one catch and that was Catch-22, which specified that a concern for one's own safety in the face of dangers that were real and immediate was the process of a rational mind. Orr was crazy and he could be grounded. All he had to do was ask: and as soon as he did he would no longer be crazy and would have to fly more missions. Or be crazy to fly more missions and sane if he didn't, but if he was sane he had to fly them. If he flew them he was crazy, didn't have to; but if he didn't want to he was sane and had to"; A House for Mr. Biswas by Trinidadian novelist V. S. (Vidiadhur Surajprasad) Naipaul, 29; Cat and Mouse (Katz und Maus) by German novelist Günter Grass, 33; Report to Greco by the late Nikos Kazantzakis; The Fox in the Attic by Richard Hughes; The Moviegoer by Alabama-born novelist Walker Percy, 45; A New Life by Bernard Malamud; The Off-Islanders by Newton, Mass.-born New York journalist turned novelist Nathaniel Benchley, 45; A Shooting Star by Wallace Stegner; The Pawnbroker by Edward Lewis Wallant; The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie by Muriel Spark; A Burnt Out Case by Graham Greene; The Game of Kings by Scottish portrait painter-turned-historical novelist Doroth Dunnett, 38, is the first of a six-volume Lymond Saga; The Spinoza of Market Street (stories) by Isaac Bashevis Singer; Mrs. Golightly (stories) by Ethel Wilson; Seduction of the Minotaur by Anaïs Nin; The Shipyard (El astillero) by Juan Carlos Onetti; Stranger in a Strange Land by Robert A. Heinlein; "Seventeen" ("Sebuntin") and "Seiji shonen shisu" by Kenzaburo Oe, whose latter story subjects him to strong criticism from Japan's right-wing elements; Horseman, Pass By by Texas-born novelist Larry (Jeff) McMurtry, 25; Not a Word about Nightingales by Bridgeport, Conn.-born novelist Maureen Howard (née Kearns), 31; The Carpetbaggers by Harold Robbins; Thunderball by Ian Fleming.
Crime novelist Dashiell Hammett dies of lung cancer at New York January 10 at age 66; Angela Thirkell at Bramley, Surrey, January 29 on the eve of her 71st birthday; Kenneth Fearing of lung cancer at New York June 26 at age 58; Ernest Hemingway of a self-inflicted gunshot wound at Ketchum, Idaho (near Sun Valley), July 2 at age 61 after several intervals of hospitalization; Louis Ferdinand Céline dies at Meudon, outside Paris, July 3 at age 67; Mazo de la Roche at Toronto July 12 at age 82; humorist-illustrator-playwright James Thurber at New York November 2 at age 66 after undergoing surgery for a blood clot on the brain ("You can fool too many of the people too much of the time," he has said).
Poetry: Halfway by Philadelpia-born poet Maxine Kumin (née Winokur), 36; Scrap Irony by Felicia Lamport; Double Persephone by Canadian poet Margaret (Eleanor) Atwood, 21; I Am, Says the Lamb by Theodore Roethke; Berlin and 1,000 Fearful Words for Fidel Castro by Lawrence Ferlinghetti; Birds by Judith Wright; Helen in Egypt by H. D. (Hilda Doolittle); Song for a Birth or a Death, and Other Poems and Every Changing Shape by Elizabeth Jennings; The Study of an Object by Zbigniew Herbert, whose search for moral and humanistic values is winning him an international readership. Soviet authorities denounce Yevtgeny Yevtushenko for his poem about the Nazi massacre of Ukrainians at Babi Yar in 1941. "No monument stands over Babi Yar./ A drop sheer as a crude gravestone./ I am afraid," the poem begins, and critics interpret the verse as a protest against Soviet anti-Semitism.
Poet H. D. (Hilda Doolittle) dies at Zürich September 27 at age 75; Robert Hillyer of a heart attack at Newark, Del., December 25 at age 66.
Juvenile: Hop on Pop and Dr. Seuss's ABC by Dr. Seuss; Jim Button and Luke the Engine Driver (Jim Knopf und Lucas der Lokomotivführer) by German author Michael (Andreas Helmuth) Ende, 31; The Phantom Tollbooth by Brooklyn, N.Y.-born architect-author Norton Juster, 32, illustrations by Jules Feiffer; The Hapless Child by Edward Gorey; The Silly Book by Binghamton, N.Y.-born New York cartoonist-author Stuart Hample, 35; Where the Red Fern Grows by Oklahoma-born carpenter-turned author-illustrator (Woodrow) Wilson Rawls, 42.
Author Charles Hamilton dies at London December 24 at age 85, having published more than 72 million words of fiction under about 20 noms de plume that included notably "Frank Richards," whose Billy Bunter stories in the Magnet and the Gem entertained children for decades before appearing in book form in the 1940s.
Painting: Still Life with Lamp Light by Pablo Picasso; Blue II by Joan Miró; New Madrid by Frank Stella; Delta Nu by Morris Louis; The Golden Wall by Hans Hofmann; The Italians by Lexington, Va.,-born painter Cy Twombly (Edwin Parker Twombley Jr.), 33; Switchsky's Syntax by Stuart Davis; Words (ink on paper mounted on canvas) and Galleries (ink on paper) by Agnes Martin; Rigger by Robert Rauschenberg; Kiss (acrylic on linen) and Movement in Squares (tempera on board) by London-born Op Art painter Bridget (Louisa) Riley, 30, who has been working at the J. Walter Thompson advertising agency. Vanessa Bell dies at her English country home April 7 at age 81; Max Weber at Great Neck, Long Island, October 4 at age 80; Augustus John at Fordingbridge, Hampshire, October 31 at age 83; Grandma Moses at Hoosick Falls, N.Y., December 13 at age 101.
Sculpture: Magic Base (any person or thing is to be considered art as long as it rests on this base), Base of the World, bread rolls covered with kaolin, and Line 1,000 Meters Long by Piero Manzoni; Mountain King by Joseph Beuys; Single Form (September) (wood) by Barbara Hepworth; Noland's Blues by David Smith; Man at a Table (plaster of paris molded from a live model) by Bronx, N.Y.-born sculptor George Segal, 36, who began working with plaster casts and chicken wire in 1960 after one of his students at Rutgers brought him a large quantity of medical scrim used by physicians to make casts for broken bones; Cigarette by South Orange, N.J.-born New York architect-turned-sculptor Anthony Peter "Tony" Smith, 49, who will establish a reputation with his minimalist style; Box with Sound of Its Own Making by Kansas City-born minimalist sculptor Robert Morris, 30; Five Hot Dogs by Arizona-born still-life pop artist Wayne Thibaud, 41, a former cartoonist and advertising artist who since 1959 has been chairman of Sacramento City College's art department; Katharine Cornell (bust) by Melvina Hoffman, now 66 (the actress is now 63).
The Barnes Collection opens to the public after extensive litigation. Housed in the Merion, Pa., mansion that the late Argyrol co-inventor Albert C. Barnes built in 1905, it includes 180 paintings by Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 60 by Henri Matisse, 59 by Paul Cézanne, 35 by Pablo Picasso, and more than a thousand works by other artists.
Kodachrome II color film is introduced by Eastman Kodak; it is 2½ times faster than the Kodachrome introduced in 1936 (see Ektachrome, 1946; Instamatic, 1963).
Theater: The American Dream by Edward Albee 1/24 at New York's off-Broadway York Theater, with Jane Hoffman, John C. Becher, Sudie Bond, Donald Nation and The Death of Bessie Smith by Albee 1/24 at the York Theater, with Doris Roberts, Harold Scott, John McCarry, John C. Becher, 370 perfs.; The Devils by English playwright John (Robert) Whiting, 43, 2/20 at London's Royal Aldwych Theatre, with Ian Holm, (Enid) Diana (Elizabeth) Rigg, 22, Max Adrian, Dorothy Tutin. Commissioned by director Peter Hall and adapted from Aldous Huxley's novel The Devils of Loudon, it is based on the martyrdom of Father Urbain Grandier in 1634 and draws condemnation from Roman Catholics for its depiction of sexually-obsessed nuns; Mary, Mary by Scranton, Pa.-born playwright Jean Kerr, 37, 3/8 at New York's Helen Hayes Theater, with Barbara Bel Geddes, Barry Nelson, 1,572 perfs.; A Far Country 4/4 at New York's Music Box Theater, with Steven Hill (as Sigmund Freud), Kim Stanley, Sam Wanamaker, Lili Darvas, Salome Jens, Patrick O'Neal, scenic design by Donald Oenslager, 271 perfs.; Luther by John Osborne 6/26 at Nottingham's Theatre Royal; August for the People by novelist-critic Nigel Dennis 9/5 at Britain's Malverne Festival, with Rex Harrison; Happy Days by Samuel Beckett 9/17 at New York's off-Broadway Cherry Lane Theater; Purlie Victorious by Georgia-born playwright Ossie Davis, 44, 9/28 at New York's Cort Theater, with Davis as Purlie Victorious Judson, Ruby Dee, Howard Da Silva, Godfrey Cambridge, Alan Alda, 261 perfs.; Write Me a Murder by Frederick Knott 10/28 at New York's Belasco Theater, with Denholm Elliott, Kim Hunter, 196 perfs.; Gideon by Paddy Chayefsky 11/9 at New York's Plymouth Theater, with Fredric March, George Segal, 236 perfs.; Andorra by Max Frisch 11/2 at Zürich's Schauspielhaus; The Detour (Der Abstecher) by German playwright Martin Walser, 34, 11/28 at Munich's Werkramm Theater der Kammerspiele; The Night of the Iguana by Tennessee Williams 12/28 at New York's Royale Theater, with Patrick O'Neal, Bette Davis, Margaret Leighton, Alan Webb, 316 perfs.
The Royal Shakespeare Company is created by a renaming of Stratford-upon-Avon's 86-year-old Shakespeare Memorial Company, which was granted a royal charter in 1925 after 46 years of staging an annual festival of Shakespeare's plays. Suffolk-born director and theatrical manager Peter Hall, 30, became managing director of the company last year, divided it into Stratford and London units, oversaw the opening of its Aldwych Theatre in London, and will continue as managing director until 1968 with help from his French-born codirector Michel Saint-Denis, 63, who will continue in his post until 1966.
Actor Harry Bannister dies at New York February 26 at age 71; playwright George S. Kaufman suffers a stroke and dies at New York June 2 at age 71; vaudeville veteran Frank Fay at Santa Monica September 25 at age 63; actor Donald Cook of a heart attack at age 60 in his New Haven, Conn., hotel October 1; producer Guthrie McClintic of cancer at Sneeden's Landing, N.Y., October 29 at age 68, survived by his wife, Katherine Cornell; Ruth Chatterton dies at Norwalk, Conn., November 24 at age 67; playwright Moss Hart of a heart attack at Palm Springs, Calif., December 20 at age 57.
Television: The Saint on Britain's ITV with Roger Moore as Simon Templar in a series of hour-long shows based on stories by Leslie Charteris (185 episodes, to 1969); University Challenge on Britain's Grenada TV (a quiz show; to 1987; quiz shows on U.S. television were discredited by the scandals of the 1950s and will not be revived until 1999, but the genre will remain popular on TV in other countries); The Defenders 9/16 on CBS with E. G. Marshall, Robert Reed (to 5/13/1965; based on a 1957 Studio One play by Reginald Rose, the show's guest stars will include Ilka Chase, Mary Fickett, Joan Hackett, Pat Hingle, Jack Klugman, Sam Wanamaker, and Fritz Weaver and it will tackle such controversial subjects as abortion and McCarthy era blacklisting; Car 54, Where Are You? 9/17 on NBC with Fred Gwynne, Joe E. Ross, Al Lewis, Nipsey Russell, Charlotte Rae in a comedy series created by Nat Hiken (to 9/8/1963, 60 episodes); Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color 9/24 on NBC with a new cartoon character, Professor Ludwig von Drake; Dr. Kildare 9/27 on NBC with Richard Chamberlain in the role created on radio by Lew Ayres 10 years ago (to 9/9/65); Hazel 9/28 on NBC with Shirley Booth, Don DeFore (to 9/5/1966); Mister Ed 10/1 on CBS with Alan Young, Connie Hines, and the voice of Allan "Rocky" Lane as the talking horse (to 9/4/1966); The Dick Van Dyke Show 10/3 on CBS with stage veteran Van Dyke, 32, Mary Tyler Moore, 23, Larry Mathews, Morey Amsterdam, now 46, in a sitcom created by comedian-writer Carl Reiner (to 9/7/1966).
Films: Robert Rossen's The Hustler with comedian Jackie Gleason (as "Minnesota Fats"), Paul Newman, Piper Laurie, Virginia-born actor George C. (Campbell), Scott, 33; Stanley Kramer's Judgment at Nuremberg with Spencer Tracy, Burt Lancaster, Richard Widmark, Viennese actor Maximilian Schell, 30, Montgomery Clift; François Truffaut's Jules and Jim with Jeanne Moreau, Viennese actor Oskar Werner, 38, Henri Serre; Billy Wilder's One, Two, Three with James Cagney, Arlene Francis, Horst Buchholz; Daniel Petrie's Raisin in the Sun with Sidney Poitier, Claudia McNeil, Ruby Dee, Diana Sands, Louis Gossett; Vittorio De Sica's Two Women with Sophia Loren (Sophia Scicoloni), 26, Eleanora Brown, Jean-Paul Belmondo. Also: Blake Edwards's Breakfast at Tiffany's with Audrey Hepburn, Detroit-born actor George Peppard, 32, Martin Balsam, Patricia Neal, Mickey Rooney; Shirley Clarke's The Connection with William Redfield; J. Lee Thompson's The Guns of Navarone with Gregory Peck, David Niven, Anthony Quinn; Jack Clayton's The Innocents with Deborah Kerr, Michael Redgrave, Martin Stephens, Pamela Franklin in a film version of the 1898 Henry James short story "The Turn of the Screw"; Nicholas Ray's King of Kings with Jeffrey Hunter, Siobhan McKenna; Delbert Mann's Lover Come Back with Rock Hudson, Doris Day, Edie Adams; John Huston's The Misfits with Marilyn Monroe, Montgomery Clift, Clark Gable; Shohei Imamura's Pigs and Battleships with Hiroyuki Nagato; Roger Corman's The Pit and the Pendulum with Vincent Price; George Seaton's The Pleasure of His Company with Fred Astaire, Lili Palmer, Debbie Reynolds; Elia Kazan's Splendor in the Grass with Natalie Wood, Warren Beatty; Peter Glenville's Summer and Smoke with Geraldine Page, Laurence Harvey; Tony Richardson's A Taste of Honey with Rita Tushingham, 19, Robert Stephens; Basil Dearden's Victim with Dirk Bogarde, Sylvia Sims; Luis Buñuel's Viridiana with Silvia Pinal, Fernando Rey (Fernando Casado Arambillet Veiga), 43; Bryan Forbes's Whistle Down the Wind with Hayley Mills, 15, Alan Bates, 27.
Actor Barry Fitzgerald dies of cancer at his native Dublin January 4 at age 72; silent film star Nita Naldi at her native New York February 17 at age 63; director Roy del Ruth of a heart attack at Hollywood April 27 at age 66; Gary Cooper of cancer at Hollywood May 13 at age 60; Jeff Chandler of blood poisoning following surgery for a slipped disc at Culver City June 17 at age 42; Gail Russell is found dead amidst empty vodka bottles in her Los Angeles apartment August 26 at age 36; Charles Coburn dies of a heart attack at New York August 30 at age 84; Leo Carillo of cancer at Santa Monica September 10 at age 81; motion picture pioneer Joseph M. Schenck of heart disease at his Beverly Hills home October 20 at age 83; Marion Davies of cancer at Los Angeles September 22 at age 64, having long since declined into alcoholism but leaving an estate worth upwards of $20 million, most of it invested in real estate; Chico Marx dies of a heart attack at his Beverly Hills home October 11 at age 70; director Zoltan Korda at Beverly Hills October 13 at age 66.
Hollywood musicals: Robert Wise's West Side Story with Natalie Wood, Puerto Rico-born actress Rita Moreno, 29, Richard Beymer, choreography by Jerome Robbins.
Stage musicals: Carnival 4/13 at New York's Imperial Theater, with Italian-born singer Anna Maria Alberghetti, 24, Kaye Ballard, Jerry Orbach, music and lyrics by Bob Merrill, 719 perfs.; Belle: or The Ballad of Doctor Crippen 5/4 at London's Strand Theatre, with Rose Hill, George Benson, music and lyrics by Monty Norman, book by Wolf Mankowitz; Stop the World I Want to Get Off 7/23 at the Queen's Theatre, London, with Anthony Newley, 29, as Littlechap, music and lyrics by Leslie Bricusse, 30, and Newley, songs that include "Gonna Build Me a Mountain," "Once in a Lifetime," "What Kind of Fool Am I?" 485 perfs.; Wildest Dreams 8/3 at London's Vaudeville Theatre, with Dorothy Reynolds, music by Julian Slade, book and lyrics by Slade and Reynolds, songs that include "There's a Place We Know," 76 perfs.; Milk and Honey 10/10 at New York's Martin Beck Theater, with Robert Weede, onetime Metropolitan Opera soprano Mimi Benzell, now 40, veteran Yiddish Theater veteran Molly Picon, now 64, music and lyrics by Jerry Herman, 543 perfs.; How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying 10/14 at New York's 46th Street Theater, with Robert Morse, 30, Rudy Vallée, Virginia Martin, book by Abe Burrows, Jack Weinstock, and Willie Gilbert based on the book by Shepherd Mead, music and lyrics by Frank Loesser, songs that include "I Believe in You," "Grand Old Ivy," "Brotherhood of Man," 1,417 perfs.; 101 in the Shade 10/24 at New York's Broadhurst Theater, with Will Geer, Inga Swenson, Gretchen Cryer, dancer George Church, New York-born ingénue Lesley Ann Warren, 17, book by N. Richard Nash based on his play The Rainmaker, music by Harvey Schmidt, lyrics by Tom Jones, choreography by Agnes De Mille, 330 perfs.; Subways Are for Sleeping 12/27 at New York's St. James Theater, with Sydney Chaplin, Illinois-born singer Carol Lawrence (Carol Maria Laraia), 27, Vermont-born actor Orson Bean (Dallas Burrows), 34, music by Jule Styne, lyrics by Betty Comden and Adolph Green, songs that include "Comes Once in a Lifetime," 205 perfs.
Musical stage veteran Jack Whiting dies at New York February 15 at age 59.
Opera: Tenor Franco Corelli makes his Metropolitan Opera debut 1/27 at age 39 singing the role of Maurice in the 1853 Verdi opera Il Trovatore with soprano Leontyne Price, now 34, in the role of Leonora; it is Price's Met debut and she receives a 45-minute ovation. The seventh black woman to debut at the Met, she will be the first to achieve worldwide status as "prima donna assoluta"; Italian tenor Luciano Pavarotti, 25, makes his debut 4/29 at the Teatro Municipale in Reggio Emilia singing the role of Rodolfo in the 1896 Puccini opera La Bohème; Brooklyn, N.Y.-born soprano Evelyn Lear (née Shulman), 35, creates the title role in Giselher Kleber's opera Alkmene at the Deutsches Oper; English soprano Elizabeth (Jean) Harwood, 23, makes her operatic debut at Glyndebourne in the 1791 Mozart opera Die Zauberflöte and joins the Sadler's Wells company; Phyllis Curtin makes her Metropolitan Opera debut 11/4 at age 38 singing the role of Fiordiligi in the 1791 Mozart opera Cosí Fan Tutte.
Ballet: Soviet dancer Rudolf Hametovich Nureyev, 23, of the Kirov Ballet defects to the West June 16. Paris critics have compared him to the late Nijinsky, but KGB agents observed him socializing with French friends, the KGB ordered the Soviet Embassy at Paris to send him back to Moscow June 3, Kirov officials have ignored two orders for his return, but Nureyev is then told that his mother is gravely ill, he realizes that if he returns he will never again be allowed to leave the country, and he flies to London with a refugee visa; Cincinnati-born ballerina Suzanne Farrell (originally Roberta Sue Ficker), 16, makes her debut with the New York City Ballet. A protégée of George Balanchine, she will dance in many of his works.
English cellist Jacqueline du Pré, 16, makes her professional debut in March at London's Wigmore Hall playing a 1672 Stradivarius cello that has been presented to her anonymously.
Oratorio: Jacob's Ladder (Die Jakobsleiter) by the late Arnold Schoenberg 6/17 at Vienna.
First performances: Gloria by Francis Poulenc 1/20 at Boston's Symphony Hall; Symphony No. 7 by Walter Piston 2/10 at Philadelphia's Academy of Music; Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima by Krzysztof Penderecki 5/31 on Warsaw radio; Symphonies for Solo Piano with Harps and Percussion by Elisabeth Lutyens 7/28 at the Proms (commissioned by the BBC, it has been written with the peculiar acoustics of the Albert Hall in mind); Symphony No. 12 (The Year 1917) by Dmitri Shostakovich 10/9 at Leningrad.
Composer Percy Grainger dies at White Plains, N.Y., February 20 at age 78; conductor Sir Thomas Beecham of a cerebral thrombosis at London March 8 at age 81; composer Arnold Schoenberg at Los Angeles July 13 at age 86.
Popular songs: "Where Have All the Flowers Gone" by Pete Seeger with anti-war lyrics inspired by the 1934 Mikhail Sholokhov novel And Quiet Flows the Don (plus fourth and fifth verses by Joe Hickerson, 26); A Maid of Constant Sorrow (album) by Seattle-born guitarist-singer-songwriter Judy (Judith Marjorie) Collins, 22, includes "Wild Mountain Thyme" and "I Know Where I'm Going"; "The Girl from Ipanema" by Brazilian composer Antonio Carlos Brasiliero de Almeida Jobim, 34, lyrics by Vinicius de Moraes (Norman Gimbel will write English lyrics); "Moon River" by Cleveland-born composer Enrico "Henry" Mancini, 37, lyrics by Johnny Mercer (for the film Breakfast at Tiffany's); "It Was a Very Good Year" by Ervin Drake; "Running Scared," "Crying," and "I'm Hurting" by Roy Orbison; "Gypsy Woman" by Chicago-born rhythm-and-blues singer-songwriter Curtis Mayfield, 19; The Village Vanguard Sessions (album) is recorded live at New York in June pianist Bill Evans, bassist Scott LaFaro, and drummer Paul Motian; Aretha (album) by Memphis-born soul singer Aretha (Louise) Franklin, 19; "Bye Bye Baby" by Motown songwriter-singer Mary Wells, 18; Nina Simone records the blues song "Trouble in Mind" and begins to make herself the poet of the civil-rights movement; "Walk on By" by Kentucky songwriter Kendall L. Hayes, 36; Ray Charles records the rhythm-and-blues song "Hit the Road Jack" and has another huge hit; "Right or Wrong" by Wanda Jackson; "Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow?" and "Up on the Roof" by Brooklyn, N.Y.-born songwriter Carole King (Carole Klein), 19, and her husband, lyricist Jerry Goffin, 22; Gladys Knight, now 18, and the Pips record "Every Beat of My Heart"; Anita O'Day records "All The Sad Young Men"; "Mister Oliver Twist" by Rod McKuen, lyrics by Gladys Shelly; "Crazy" by Willie Nelson, whose song is recorded by Patsy Cline (her song "I Fall to Pieces" is also a hit); Hi, We're the Miracles (album) by Smokey Robinson's 6-year-old Detroit vocal group, whose 1960 single "Shop Around" became the first Motown Corp. record to have sales of more than 1 million copies.
The Temptations vocal group has its beginnings in a Detroit soul music group (the Elgins) created by a marriage of two other groups (the Primes and the Distants) with members who will soon include Texarkana-born baritone Otis Williams (originally Otis Miles), 21; Birmingham, Ala.,-born harmony singer Paul Williams, 22; Montgomery, Ala.-born bass Melvin Franklin (originally David English), 18; Union Springs, Ala.-born lead singer Eddie Kendricks, 21; Meridian, Miss.-born lead singer David (originally Davis Eli) Ruffin, 20; Birmingham-born Dennis Edwards, 18; and Smokey Robinson, now 21, who writes for the Miracles as well as the Temptations.
The Supremes sign a contract with Berry Gordy's 4-year-old Motown Corp. and cut their first records. Originally called the Primettes, Detroit singers Diana Ross, Mary Wilson, and Florence Ballard are still in their teens, but Ross's friend Smokey Robinson has introduced them to Gordy, and as The Supremes they will make eight gold records in less than 2 years and have seven top records.
Hibbing, Minn.-born folk singer Bob Dylan debuts September 26 at a Greenwich Village, New York, coffeehouse. Now 20, he has changed his name from Robert Zimmerman in honor of the late Welsh poet Dylan Thomas; Columbia Records vice president John Hammond discovers him and releases his first album. Dylan will provide civil-rights demonstrators and student protest movements of the 1960s with their anthems "Blowin' in the Wind" and "The Times, They Are A-Changin'."
Cuban salsa singer Celia Cruz arrives at New York speaking only Spanish and pursues the career that will make her a worldwide star (see 1960). Never revealing her age, she wears form-fitting gowns and extravagant wigs, shrieks "azucar," and makes an instant hit with the city's Puerto Rican community.
Songwriter Douglas Furber dies at London February 19 at age 75; Joe E. Howard gives a benefit performance at Chicago's Opera House May 19, sings "Let Me Call You Sweetheart," collapses on stage, and dies of cardiac arrest at age 83.
The Dave Clark Five organized by London-born producer Clark, 18, includes lead singer-pianist-organist Mike Smith, 17; saxophonist-harmonica player-acoustic guitarist-vocalist Denis Payton, 18; bass-acoustic guitarist-vocalist Rick Huxley, 17, and acoustic guitarist-vocalist Lenny Davidson, 17;
The 10-member South African singing group Ladysmith Black Mambazo begins performing a capella songs in Zulu about daily life.
North Carolina-born jazz saxophonist John William Coltrane gains his first wide acclaim at age 35 with a December 1 recording of his John Coltrane Quartet.
CBS signs a contract with the National Football League giving it exclusive rights to televise the NFL's 98 regular-season games for an annual fee of $4.65 million (see 1960). NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle initiates a revenue-sharing plan that will make team franchises enormously valuable as annual revenues from the three networks grow to exceed $400 million.
ABC's Wide World of Sports debuts on television Saturday afternoon, April 29, with Philadelphia-born announcer James Kenneth "Jim" McKay (originally McManus), 39, in a program developed by New York-born independent producer Edgar J. Scherick, 46, and Queens, N.Y.-born producer Roone (Pinckney) Arledge Jr., 30. Scherick joined an advertising agency in 1950, started Sports Programs Inc. 7 years later, and helps Arledge sell the idea to ABC. Arledge has directed the Shari Lewis puppet show at NBC and will make ABC dominant in sports coverage for the next 20 years, innovating such features as instant replay and boom microphones (see Monday Night Football, 1970).
Rodney George "Rod" Laver, 22, (Australia) wins in men's singles at Wimbledon, Angela Mortimer, 29, (Brit) in women's singles; Roy Emerson, 24, (Australia) wins in men's singles at Forest Hills, Darlene Hard in women's singles.
Wilma Rudolph sets a new women's record July 19 at Stuttgart, running the 100-meter dash in 11.2 seconds.
Golfer Arnold Palmer wins his first British Open.
The Minnesota Twins play their first season, Washington Senators co-owner Calvin Griffith having moved his team to the Minneapolis-St. Paul area (see 1978).
Former Detroit Tigers outfielder Ty Cobb dies at Atlanta July 17 at age 74.
Boston Braves pitcher Warren Spahn defeats the Chicago Cubs August 11 to post his 300th victory, becoming the seventh pitcher since 1900 to reach that mark. Now 40, Spahn won the Cy Young Award 4 years ago as the outstanding pitcher in both leagues and is the highest paid pitcher in baseball.
Roger Maris of the New York Yankees breaks Babe Ruth's home run record of 60 October 1 at Yankee Stadium, but purists maintain that the ball hit by Ruth was heavier and that Ruth set his record in a 154-game season while the October 1 game is the 162nd (and final) Yankee game for 1961. Maris's record will stand until 1998.
The New York Yankees win the World Series, defeating the Cincinnati Reds 4 games to 1.
Toy maker A. C. Gilbert of Erector Set and American Flyer model train sets fame dies at Boston January 24 at age 76.
First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy creates a fashion sensation at inaugural ceremonies at Washington, D.C., January 20 by wearing a simple pill-box hat designed by the Bergdorf-Goodman milliner Halston (his head size is the same as hers).
The beltless, sleeveless, high-bosomed princess dress worn by Audrey Hepburn in the film Breakfast with Tiffany's boosts the fortunes of its designer, Hubert de Givenchy, now 34, who will open ready-to-wear boutiques worldwide in the next few years, bringing high fashion to women who cannot afford individual creations.
Paris dress designer André Courrèges, 38, opens his own shop, having worked as first assistant to Cristóbal Balenciaga. His early work shows Balenciaga's influence, but by 1964 Courrèges will have established a simple style distinctively his own, with proportionately-cut hip-hugger pants, short skirts, transparent tops, sequined jumpsuits, vinyl trimmed suits and coats, white midcalf boots, and oversize dark glasses.
Legal betting shops open in Britain May 1 for the first time since 1853 under terms of the Betting & Gaming Act passed by Parliament. The government has turned a blind eye to "punters" for more than a century, a labyranthine network of bookmakers' runners has served a flourishing business, and betting parlors will now produce tax revenues.
Mikhail Botvinnik regains the world chess title May 12 by defeating Mikhail Tal; he wins the championship for an unprecedented third time at age 49 (see 1960; 1963).
Procter & Gamble test markets disposable diaper pads at Peoria, Ill. A P&G team headed by former staff chemical engineer Victor Mills, now 64, has replaced the pins in the 1949 Boater product with plastic snaps that cannot prick an infant's skin, but the 10¢-per-diaper price discourages buyers (see Pampers, 1966).
U.S. cigarette makers spend $115 million on television advertising, up from $40 million in 1957 (see Surgeon General's Report, 1964; Banzhaf, 1966).
The U.S. Supreme Court rules 5 to 4 in Mapp v. Ohio June 19 that the exclusionary rule barring use in federal courts of evidence obtained through illegal searches and seizures in violation of the Fourth Amendment applies also to state courts (see 1949). The high court overturns the conviction of Cleveland boarding-house owner Dollree Mapp, whose house was entered without a search warrant in 1957 by police officers looking for gambling materials. They found no such materials but did find obscene books that Ms. Mapp owned in violation of an Ohio law against possession of such literature. Most of the oral argument concerned the constitutionality of the Ohio obscenity law with little attention paid to the search-and-seizure question (see 1984; Miranda decision, 1966).
Architecture, Real Estate
The Death and Life of Great American Cities by Scranton, Pa.-born Canadian social critic Jane Jacobs (née Butzner), 45, observes that cities were safer and more pleasant when they consisted of neighborhood communities, where people lived in relatively low-priced buildings, knew their neighbors, and lived in the streets and on their doorsteps rather than in the depersonalized environment characteristic of modern cities. Critic Lewis Mumford, 65, notes that congested 18th-century cities were hardly safer or healthier.
New York adopts a new zoning resolution that permits buildings to contain a maximum of 12 times as much floor space as the area of the original site with special bonuses for enlightened land use (see 1916: the Equitable Building of 1915 contained nearly 30 times as much floor space as was contained in its land site). Chief effect of the new resolution will be to encourage architects to set off their buildings with open plazas.
New York's Chase Manhattan Bank building is completed in lower Manhattan to designs by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill; the 60-story glass-and-aluminum tower gives the financial district its first open plaza.
Century City goes up on a 180-acre site in west Los Angeles formerly owned by Twentieth Century Fox studios. Aluminum Corp. of America (Alcoa) pursues a grandiose scheme for a city within a city that will provide homes for 12,000 with office and retail space for 20,000, a scheme projected by New York real estate operator William Zeckendorf Jr., 56.
London's 500-foot Post Office Tower (later British Telecom Tower) is completed in the heart of the city, changing its skyline. Designed by Ministry of Public Building and Works chief architect Eric Bedford, 51, the upper floors of the telecommunications tower are left uncovered, exposing antennae that carry microwave telephone links. Two observation platforms and a revolving restaurant top the structure (the platforms will close in 1971 following a bomb explosion and the restaurant will close in 1980).
Architect Eero Saarinen dies of a brain tumor at Ann Arbor, Mich., September 1 at age 51.
Haleakala National Park is established by act of Congress in the new state of Hawaii. Its 26,403 acres include the dormant 10,023-foot Haleakala Volcano.
Hawaii's legislature enacts the first statewide land-use zoning plan, setting aside some land for agriculture, some for conservation, and some for urban development.
A study by the California Wildland Research Center reveals that only 17 million acres of U.S. wilderness remain, down from 55 million in 1926. Virgin forests have been disappearing for 35 years at the rate of a million acres per year; the largest single unit of wilderness remaining embraces 2 million acres (see 1964).
A conference aimed at preserving Africa's wildlife convenes in Tanganyika in September.
Britain and Iceland settle a fisheries dispute, but controversy over fishing rights in the North Atlantic will continue with "cod wars" between the two.
The United States has a wheat carry-over of 1.4 billion bushels in July, depressing farm prices, and the corn carry-over in October exceeds 2 billion bushels, a record that will stand for more than 20 years. The Kennedy administration will introduce an emergency feed-grain program to reduce acreage planted to such grain (see 1963).
Widespread mechanical harvesting of processing tomatoes for use in canning, ketchup, paste, sauces, tomato juice, and tomato soup begins in California as farmers plant the tough-skinned VF 145-B7879 variety developed by researchers at the Davis campus of the University of California. Rising labor costs have threatened the industry in California, whose fields produce much of the world's processing tomato crop. By 1975 the state will be producing more than 7 million tons of processing tomatoes per year, up from 1.3 million in 1954 (table tomatoes will continue to be hand-picked, partly because machine-harvested tomatoes must be in rows separated by wide spaces to permit passage of machines).
Banana king Samuel Zemurray dies of Parkinson's disease at New Orleans November 30 at age 84.
China suffers further crop failures, exacerbating the famine that is killing millions throughout the country (see 1959). Chairman Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) finally comes to realize that the peasants are dying and turns on the local leaders, blaming them for having forced the people into communes and lying about "miracle" harvests when so many are trying to stay alive by eating bark, leaves, and even the earth itself, sometimes resorting to cannibalism (see 1963).
Calories Don't Count by Brooklyn, N.Y., physican Herman Taller, 52, is a U.S. bestseller. The author urges overweight people to cut out carbohydrates and increase consumption of fats (see 1967; Stefansson, 1946; Stillman, 1967).
Food And Drink
Campbell Soup Co. acquires Pepperidge Farms, Inc. January 9 for $28.2 million in stock (see 1955). Margaret Rudkin remains chairman of the board and will continue to be active in the business until September 1966.
Total breakfast food is introduced by General Mills, whose advertising will promote it for its nutritional qualities.
Frito-Lay, Inc., is created by a merger of Atlanta's H. W. Lay Co. and the Frito Co. of Dallas (see 1932; 1939). By 1994 the company will have captured 40 percent of the $10 billion U.S. salted snack-food market (no one else will have more than 6 or 7 percent).
R. J. Reynolds acquires Pacific Hawaiian Products Co. and its Hawaiian Punch as the giant tobacco company begins to diversify. Developed in the late 1930s and distributed nationally since 1950, Hawaiian Punch contains some pineapple, papaya, guava, passionfruit, and other juices but is nearly 90 percent water and sugar.
Canned pet foods are among the three top-selling categories in U.S. grocery stores. Americans feed an estimated 25 million pet dogs, 20 million pet cats.
The lemon-lime drink Sprite introduced by Coca-Cola Co. competes with 7-Up (see 1933; Tab, 1963).
Coffee-Mate non-dairy creamer is introduced by Carnation Co. (see Pream, 1952; Coffee Rich, 1960). The powder is made of corn syrup solids, vegetable fat, sodium caseinate, and various additives (see "contented cows," 1906; Borden's Cremora, 1963).
The Italian dairy company Parmalat SpA founded at Parma by entrepreneur Calisto Tanzi, 23, begins with a small pasteurization plant and will grow to have divisions elsewhere in Europe and in the Americas, manufacturing tomato products, vegetable soups, fruit juices, baked goods, and pasta products in addition to dairy products. In 1965 the company will become the first in Italy to offer specialized milk products from herds certified free of tuberculosis (see UHT milk, 1963; shelf-stable milk, 1993).
Cookbook: Mastering the Art of French Cooking by Julia Child, Simone "Simca" Beck, and Louisette Bertholle demystifies good French cuisine (see 1951). Their book will have sales of more than 1.25 million copies by 1974.
The first Hardee's fast-food restaurant opens May 5 at Rocky Mount, N.C., serving charcoal-broiled hamburgers at 15¢, cheeseburgers at 20¢, french fries at 10¢, milk shakes at 20¢, soft drinks at 10¢, milk at 12¢, and coffee at 10¢. Wilbur Hardee, 42, opened a hamburger stand at Greenville, N.C., in the fall of last year, was soon averaging $1,000 per week in net profit, and attracted the attention of Rocky Mount businessmen Leonard Rawls Jr. and Jim Gardner, who have persuaded him to go into partnership with them. Their charcoal broiler is one of only three of its kind in America; it features a water purifying system that floats away grease and keeps the charcoal free of impurities. The success of Rawls and Gardner attracts former Baltimore Colts wide receiver Jerome J. "Jerry" Richardson and his college football teammate Charles Bradshaw, who with two other investors raise $20,000 to open the first Hardee's franchised restaurant October 19 at Spartanburg, S.C., and the chain will grow by April 2005 to have 1,894 locations in 31 states.
McDonald's hamburger stands begin a vast proliferation as Ray Kroc buys out the McDonald brothers and acquires all rights to the McDonald name for $14 million, including interest costs (see 1955). Kroc has established nearly 230 stands, borrowed $2.7 million to make his deal with the McDonalds, will have 700 outlets by 1965, and will build McDonald's into a worldwide chain. Dick McDonald, now 52, returns to his native New Hampshire; his brother Mac will die in 1971 (see 1967).
The London restaurant Cranks opens June 21 at 22 Carnaby Street with 50 seats and a vegetarian menu consisting mainly of salads, wholegrain rolls, soups, savouries, and puddings served on handthrown stoneware. David Canter and his wife, Kay, have been inspired by the 1951 Gayelord Hauser book Look Younger, Live Longer. They have gone into partnership with Daphne Swann, and they use only fresh fruit and dairy products, 100 percent wholegrain flour, eggs from free-range hens, and raw Barbados sugar to prepare dishes that are made fresh each day from these basic ingredients. Cranks branches will open in the 1970s and '80s in Covent Garden and elsewhere in London and in the West Country, making Cranks the first and only vegetarian restaurant chain in Britain.
Britain's National Health Service announces January 30 that contraceptive pills will be available beginning December 4. Made by G. D. Searle with 5 mgs. of hormone, Conovid pills will be the first oral contraceptives sold in Britain.
Some 800,000 U.S. women have prescriptions filled for The Pill (see 1960). Some complain of swollen breasts, weight gain, migraine headaches, nausea, or blurred vision but are assured that such side effects are temporary and will disappear with longer use (see 1962).
A birth control clinic opens at New Haven, Conn., but is forced to close after 9 days. The order will not be rescinded for nearly 4 years (see New York, 1929; Supreme Court decision, 1965).
The Lippes Loop intrauterine device for birth control will be implanted within 8 years in an estimated 8 million women worldwide. Not strictly speaking a contraceptive, the IUD developed by Buffalo, N.Y., physician Jack Lippes does not prevent the egg and sperm from coming together but rather makes the womb unreceptive to implantation of the fertilized egg, which is expelled as an early miscarriage in the monthly menses. Since it is not a drug, it has not been investigated for safety by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and its sales are not regulated (see Dalkon Shield, 1971).
The National Council of Churches sponsors the first American Conference on Church and Family, giving educators, public health officials, religious leaders, and sociologists vivid illustrations of the suffering caused by ignorance about frigidity, impotence, homosexuality, and contraception among thousands, if not millions, of people (see Calderone, 1964).
A Ladies' Home Journal poll of young women finds that "most" want four children and "many" want five, but U.S. birthrates have been dropping since 1957 and will continue to fall sharply as more women get education and jobs.
China's population reaches an estimated 650 million, India has 445 million, the USSR 215, the United States 185 (up from 141 at the close of World War II), Indonesia 100, Pakistan 97, Japan 95, Brazil 73, West Germany 58, the U.K. 54.
New York and its suburban environs have a combined population of 14.2 million, Tokyo 10 million, London 8.3, Paris 7.7, Shanghai more than 7, Buenos Aires 6.9, Los Angeles 6.6, Chicago more than 6, Moscow 5.2, Mexico City 5, Calcutta 4.5, Bombay 4.2, Beijing (Peking) 4.2, Philadelphia 3.7.