"The 1963 Inaugural Address of Governor George C. Wallace"
By: George C. Wallace
Date: January 14, 1963
Source: Wallace, George. "The 1963 Inaugural Address of Governor George C. Wallace." Alabama Department of Archives and History. Available online at http://www.archives.state.al.us/govs_list/inauguralspeech.h... ; website home page: http://www.archives.state.al.us (accessed June 2, 2003).
About the Author: George Corley Wallace (1919–1998) was born in Clio, Alabama. He became a staunch segregationalist and won the election for Alabama governer in 1962. During his first term a series of divisive racial confrontations took place. Reelected as governor for a fourth and final time in 1982, Wallace eventually disavowed his segregationalist views and attracted a majority of African American votes in his final run for office. The politician also staged two unsuccessful, yet highly symbolic, runs for the presidency in 1968 and 1972, when he was shot and paralyzed.
Soul on Ice
By: Eldridge Cleaver
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"For President Kennedy: An Epilogue"
By: Theodore H. White
Date: December 6, 1963
Source: White, Theodore H. "For President Kennedy: An Epilogue." Life, December 6, 1963, 158–159.
About the Author: Theodore H. White (1915–1986) graduated from Harvard University in 1938 and worked for Time magazine as a foreign correspondent during World War II. He later wrote for The New Republic and Collier's before publishing a series of books on the American politcal scene, including The Making of the President: 1960, which won the Pulitzer Prize for general nonfiction in 1962. White remained one of America's leading political commentators until his death.
Theodore White became acquainted with the Kennedys while following the campaign that he covered in The Making of the President: 1960. White was working on a profile of John F. Kennedy when, on November 22, 1963, President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. Kennedy's widow, Jacqueline, asked White to meet with her just one week later for a private interview. Reflecting on her husband's work, she referred to the Broadway show Camelot, the Alan Jay Lerner-Frederick Loewe musical that depicted Sir Arthur's Knights of the Round Table in glowingly...
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The Feminine Mystique
By: Betty Friedan
Source: Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. New York: W.W. Norton, 1963, 15–19.
About the Author: Betty Friedan (1921–), born in Peoria, Illinois, was a founding member of the National Organization of Women in 1966, the National Abortion Rights League in 1968, and the National Women's Political Caucus in 1971. The author of "It Changed My Life": Writings on the Women's Movement (1976), The Second Stage (1981), The Fountain of Age (1993), Beyond Gender: The New Politics of Work and Family (1997), and Life So Far (2000), Friedan remains an advocate of women's and family issues.
Although job opportunities for women had expanded during World War II, many women were displaced at war's end in favor of the returning veterans. Other women willingly left the job market to become full-time homemakers and mothers, an option made possible for many families by the prosperous economy of the 1950s. Yet many wives and mothers found themselves frustrated by social attitudes that increasingly emphasized the domesticity of women during the decade at the exclusion of any other role. Images of women as capable, career-oriented professionals declined in...
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Automobiles of the 1960s
"If You Think Big Cars Are Back in Style, You're Right"; "The Second Best Shape in Italy"; "Superiority Complex"
By: Chrysler Dodge Division; Fiat Motors; General Motors Chevrolet Division
Date: 1963, 1965, 1968
Source: The Advertising Archive Ltd. Image nos. 30522839, 30523028, 30522195.
At the beginning of the twentieth century only 8,000 automobiles were registered in the United States. At first considered a plaything of the rich, more efficient production techniques and installment buying transformed
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"We Shall Overcome"
By: César Chávez
Date: September 16, 1965
Source: Chávez, César. "We Shall Overcome." El Malcriado. September 16, 1965. Available online at ; website home page: http://www.sfsu.edu (accessed June 2, 2003).
"Prayer of the Farm Workers' Struggle"
By: César Chávez
Source: Chávez, César. "Prayer of the Farm Workers' Struggle." Available online at ; website home page: http://www.sfsu.edu (accessed June 2, 2003).
"The Mexican-American and the Church"
By: César Chávez
Date: Summer 1968
Source: Chávez, César. "The Mexican-American and the Church." El Grito. Summer 1968. Available online at ; website home page: http://www.sfsu.edu (accessed June 2, 2003).
About the Author: Césario (César) Estrada Chávez (1927–1993) formed the Farm Workers Association (FWA) as a self-help organization for migrant workers in Delano,...
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Valley of the Dolls
By: Jacqueline Susann
Source: Susann, Jacqueline. Valley of the Dolls. New York: Grove Press, 1966, 377–382.
About the Author: Jacqueline Susann (1918–1974), after the 1963 publication of a humorous book of sketches about her poodle, Every Night, Josephine!, found lasting celebrity as a writer. Valley of the Dolls was a publishing sensation when it appeared in 1966 and ranked as the best-selling novel of all-time by the end of the decade. Susann followed Valley of the Dolls with two more best-sellers, The Love Machine (1970) and Once Is Not Enough (1973).
Although she had written some plays in the 1940s and scored a major success with the book Every Night, Josephine! in 1963, Jacqueline Susann was an unlikely candidate as a novelist. After undergoing surgery for breast cancer in 1962, however, she became determined to publish a book that would reach a mass audience and finally deliver the fame that she had sought in a quarter-century of toiling away as a minor-league celebrity. Combing through her memories as a stage actress and television personality, Susann fictionalized many of the stories and rumors that she had picked up over the years: aging musical...
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Phyllis Diller's Housekeeping Hints
By: Phyllis Diller
Source: Diller, Phyllis. Phyllis Diller's Housekeeping Hints. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1966, 16–17; 68–70.
Phyllis Diller's Marriage Manual
By: Phyllis Diller
Source: Diller, Phyllis. Phyllis Diller's Marriage Manual. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1967, 79–82.
About the Author: Phyllis Ada (Driver) Diller (1917–), insecure about her physical appearance, developed an outgoing personality and indulged her love of music by studying the piano at the Sherwood Music Conservatory in Chicago. In 1955 Diller made her stand-up debut at the Purple Onion nightclub in San Francisco. Within five years, she appeared regularly on national television as one of the few female comedians of the day.
Although her stand-up comedy routine at first relied on her musical talent with a series of impressions, Phyllis Diller quickly realized that the monologues about her domestic life were proving even more...
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The Conservative Backlash
"Nixon's Address to the Nation on the War in Vietnam"
By: Richard M. Nixon
Date: November 3, 1969
Source: "Nixon's Address to the Nation on the War in Vietnam." Available online at http://www.watergate.info/nixon/silent-majority-speech-1969... ; website home page: http://www.watergate.info (accessed June 2, 2003).
About the Author: Richard M. Nixon (1913–1994) was defeated in his presidential run in 1960 and a California gubernatorial run in 1962, but he staged a political comeback in 1968 and was elected to the White House. He was reelected in 1972, but resigned on August 8, 1974, after his role was revealed in covering up a break in of the Democratic Party Committee's headquarters in the Watergate building.
The Power of the Positive Woman
By: Phyllis Schlafly
Source: Schlafly, Phyllis. The Power of the Positive Woman. New York: Jove Publications, 1977, 213–215; 218–219.
About the Author: Phyllis McAlpin...
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Sex and the New Single Girl
By: Helen Gurley Brown
Source: Brown, Helen Gurley. "The Rich, Full Life." In Sex and the New Single Girl. New York: Bernard Geis Associates, 1970, 253–254, 257–258, 262–263, 273,
About the Author: Helen Gurley Brown (1922–) wrote Sex and the Single Girl, an advice-style book targeted to young, single, working women; it was one of the ten best-selling books of 1962. Sex and the Office followed in 1964, and in 1965 Gurley Brown became editor of Cosmopolitan, a dying general-interest magazine. After Gurley Brown revamped its format to emphasize issues of interest to single women in their twenties, the magazine's fortunes immediately rebounded.
Bored with her work as an advertising copywriter, Helen Gurley Brown seized upon her husband's suggestion that she write a self-help book aimed at young, single women. The result, 1962's Sex and the Single Girl, sold more than two million copies in its first month of release and led to Sex and the Office (1964), Outrageous Opinions (1966), and Sex and the New Single Girl (1970). Often writing about her own experiences as a single, working woman until the age of thirty-seven, the volumes transformed Brown...
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"Christopher Street Liberation Day, June 28, 1970"
By: Fran Winant
Source: Winant, Fran. "Christopher Street Liberation Day, June 28, 1970." In Jay, Karla and Allen Young, eds. Out of the Closets: Voices of Gay Liberation. New York: Douglas Book Corporation, 1972.
About the Author: Fran Winant (1943–) has been a noted writer, artist, and activist since the early 1970s. Winant's poetry has been widely anthologized and her poetry books, Looking at Women (1971), Dyke Jacket (1976), and Goddess of Lesbian Dreams (1980), were published by Violet Press. Her paintings were included in Extended Sensibilities, the first museum show by openly gay artists in 1982 at the New Museum and received a National Endowment for the Arts Award in 1990. Active in the holistic health and spirituality community, Winant also worked as an instructor and practitioner of massage therapy in New York City.
Legislation outlawing discrimination based on religious identity, race and ethnicity, and gender was enacted in the 1960s on all levels of government, in large part due to the efforts of the Civil Rights and women's movements. In contrast, most gay advocacy groups maintained a low profile in the United States. With social prejudice and statutes...
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Woodstock: The Oral History
By: Diana Warshawsky and Richie Havens
Source: Makower, Joel, ed. Woodstock: The Oral History. New York: Doubleday, 1989, 7, 8–9, 10, 12–13, 14, 185–190.
About the Authors: Diana Warshawsky, like many of those who went to the Woodstock Music and Art Fair in August 1969, had little idea of the magnitude of the event that would take place. She had heard that a concert was planned in up-state New York—with a rumored appearance by Bob Dylan—and when she ran into some acquaintances who were planning on going, she joined the group. Overwhelmed by the crowded conditions of the concert, Warshawsky left the event on the second day of the festival. Richie Havens (1941–) born in New York City, was a popular folk guitarist and singer on the city's club scene by the early 1960s. After releasing several albums in the mid-1960s, Havens found mainstream success with Something Else Again in 1968. In addition to his work as a recording artist and concert performer, Havens was active in environmental causes as the founder of the Natural Guard, a children's educational foundation. Still a popular concert performer, in 2002 Havens released the album Wishing Well.
Those who came of age...
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Days of Decision: An Oral History of Conscientious Objectors in the Military During the Vietnam War
By: Mike Ferner
Source: Gioglio, Gerald R., ed. Days of Decision: An Oral History of Conscientious Objectors in the Military During the Vietnam War. Trenton: The Broken Rifle Press, 1989, 27–30, 63, 65, 180, 183, 188.
About the Author: Mike Ferner (1951–), born in Toledo, Ohio, struggled to reconcile the media's anti-Communist rhetoric with the moral teachings on pacifism. As a hospital corpsman in the U.S. Navy, Ferner treated soldiers from the Vietnam War who had serious injuries, and the experience deepened his opposition to the war. Ferner returned to Toledo to work as a union organizer for the Farm Labor Organizing Committee and as an activist for the Toledo Coalition for Safe Energy and the Veterans for Peace.
The United States's involvement in Vietnam was one of many foreign interventions intended to stem the influence of communism during the Cold War. A French colony that had been occupied by the Japanese during World War II, Vietnam asserted its independence under the communist rebel leader Ho Chi Minh in 1946. The French attempted to maintain control of the colony and fought Ho Chi Minh in a civil war that lasted until 1954, when they withdrew from Vietnam after a series of military...
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What you can do for your Country: An Oral History of the Peace Corps
By: Roger Landrum, Lynda Edwards, Robert Marshall, and George McDaniel
Source: Schwarz, Karen, ed. What You Can Do for Your Country: An Oral History of the Peace Corps. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1991, 37, 42, 76–77, 117–118, 120–121, 123.
About the Authors: Roger Landrum, Lynda Edwards, Robert Marshall, and George McDaniel entered the Peace Corps with similar expectations and left with different perspectives on their experience. All were profoundly moved by the cross-cultural impact of their tours, yet they looked back with varying degrees of their initial enthusiasm and idealism intact. For some, the differences between the Peace Corps's stated goals and the reality of their assignments left them somewhat cynical about the experience. Others emerged with a renewed commitment to community and international development.
During a campaign stop at the University of Michigan in October 1960, Democratic candidate John F. Kennedy spontaneously asked the crowd of students if they would be willing to devote years of their lives to helping people in less developed countries. His off-the-cuff remarks drew a thunderous response; after Kennedy was elected president, forming an international...
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