Topics in the News
Baseball: Advancements and Legends
Baseball in Evolution.
Baseball in the 1920s was filled with superlative players, managers, and teams and with game-altering changes in strategy, equipment, and ball-parks. For decades baseball had been played as a game of hit-and-run, choked-bat singles and bunts, and base-stealing; it had focused on the play among pitchers, short-ball hitters, and infielders. Such great singles hitters and base runners as the Detroit Tigers' Ty Cobb and the Pittsburgh Pirates' Honus Wagner epitomized this approach to the game. But change came as the decade began and Babe Ruth made his debut as a New York Yankee after being sold by the Boston Red Sox. The preceding year he had hit an astonishing twenty-nine home runs for Boston, and in 1920, his first season with the Yanks, he smashed an almost unbelievable fifty-four homers. League owners and managers—and the fans—fell in love with the drama of the long ball.
To increase the number of homers, which made games seem more exciting and caused gate receipts to rise dramatically, the ball was altered from the cork-and-rubber-centered "dead ball" to a more responsive so-called "rabbit ball." New baseball parks, too, were designed to help batters by means of outfields bounded by bleachers and fences. Rules were imposed forbidding pitchers to improve their odds with batters by scuffing or adding...
(The entire section is 1889 words.)
Baseball: The Black Sox Scandal
On 28 September 1920 a Chicago grand jury indicted eight Chicago White Sox baseball players for conspiring to throw the 1919 World Series, which they had played against the Cincinnati Reds. The players accused were pitchers Eddie Cicotte and Claude "Lefty" Williams, first baseman Arnold "Chick" Gandil, shortstop Charles "Swede" Risberg, third baseman George "Buck" Weaver, left fielder "Shoeless Joe" Jackson, center fielder Oscar "Happy" Felsch, and substitute
The 1919 Chicago White Sox were a strong team. During the regular season they had won eighty-eight games and lost fifty-two. Their opponents, the Cincinnati...
(The entire section is 1056 words.)
Baseball: The Ngro Leagues
Throughout the early decades of the twentieth century, all sports—boxing, tennis, golf, basketball, football, racing, the Olympics—strongly discouraged
(The entire section is 1174 words.)
A Lackluster Game: College Basketball.
Having been invented by James Naismith in the winter of 1891, basketball was not quite thirty years old as the decade of the 1920s began. In its adolescence the game had difficulties that tended to discourage both athletic participation and spectator interest. The interpretation of rules varied from game to game and court to court, thereby resulting in inconsistent officiating and confused players and observers. One set of referees often repeatedly officiated games for a single team and thus became virtually part of that team. As a consequence the phrase "home court advantage" carried real meaning, and few teams were eager to gamble their win-loss record at another school's gymnasium where they would be under the control of another team's officials. With two twenty-minute halves, games were short and extremely low-scoring, and until 1923 only one player from each team was allowed to shoot foul shots.
Few Intersectional Games.
Only a few college conferences, such as the Big Ten or the Eastern Intercollegiate...
(The entire section is 775 words.)
The Rise in Popularity.
Throughout all weight divisions, from flyweight to heavyweight, the 1920s produced splendid boxers, including two of the greatest fighters of all time: heavyweight Jack Dempsey and light-weight Benny Leonard. Before World War I, boxing in the United States had been largely regarded as disreputable, practiced by rough characters in saloons and attracting spectators of uncertain character. After the war many of the laws that had banned boxing were rescinded, and the sport was brought under the control of commissions intended to reduce the undesirable criminal and gambling elements so often associated with it. With legal impediments lifted, boxing spread rapidly throughout the country and became one of the popular athletic spectacles for both the privileged classes and the common man.
Dempsey's and Rickard's Long Shadows.
Jack Dempsey was one of the most compelling boxers in the ring and thus contributed to the rising interest in the sport during the decade. Promoter Tex Rickard helped elevate the financial rewards for boxers and bring a new glamour to their matches. The undisputed champion of boxing promoters, he produced the first million-dollar gate in the Dempsey-Georges Carpentier fight and then set up later matches that generated even more revenue. For the second Dempsey-Gene Tunney fight in 1927 the gate was...
(The entire section is 1027 words.)
Post-World War I.
Football in the 1920s was the quintessential college game. Certain strategies had been developing since before World War I to encourage a more wideopen style of play and to create spectator excitement, although the most important strategies actually had been available before 1910. Yet many coaches and players of the 1910s dismissed the forward pass as unmanly and unsportsmanlike until Gus Dorias threw to Knute Rockne in a 1 November 1913 game with powerhouse Army and helped Notre Dame pull off a 35-13 upset. It took the 1920s to turn such strategies into electrifying plays that became a necessary feature of every game. This new approach to football appealed as much to the general public as it did to students and alumni. In 1927 thirty million spectators paid more than $50 million for tickets to watch the September-to-Thanksgiving season of games. Huge stadiums were built that held seventy thousand and eighty thousand spectators. Voices of discontent accompanied the rise in spectator zeal and investment, but these voices complained not so much about the physical punishment to players or about its effects on academic environments but instead about its possible commercialization of an allegedly pure amateur amusement. College football challenged professional baseball as the nation's true spectator sport. It became part and perhaps symbol of exciting, noisy campus life during...
(The entire section is 1543 words.)
From Rags to Riches.
At the beginning of the 1920s professional football was in disarray. The play-for-pay sport was twenty-five years old in 1920, but few people took notice. Tickets to games could hardly be given away. Players met in the lobby of a hotel on a Sunday morning, discussed some plays, and then put them into the game that afternoon. A teammate in one game might be an opponent in the next. What league organization existed was merely a loose confederation. Four men changed the game into a popular, rapidly growing spectator sport before the decade was over: Joe E. Carr, Tim Mara, Red Grange, and George Halas.
The National Football League.
On 17 September 1920 the American Professional Football Association was founded in Ralph Hays's automobile agency in Canton, Ohio. The great former Olympian and football star Jim Thorpe was elected president; Stanley Cofall, the former Notre Dame star and coach of the Massillon Tigers, was elected vice president. George Halas was also among those present. Each of the eleven franchise teams paid $100 to be part of the organization. These eleven teams were the Canton Bulldogs; the Cleveland Indians; the Dayton Triangles; the Akron Professionals; the Massillon Tigers; the Chicago Cardinals; the Chicago Staleys; and yet unnamed clubs in Rochester, New York; Rock Island, Illinois; Muncie, Indiana;...
(The entire section is 608 words.)
Like virtually every other sport in America during the 1920s, golf experienced an extraordinary increase in popularity. The number of weekend golfers doubled between 1916 and 1920 to a high of one-half million. The sheer volume of players meant that new golf courses, private and public, had to be constructed. In the past golf often had been viewed as an exclusive game for the upper classes, but during the 1920s the game increasingly appealed, as a participant and a spectator sport, to the middle class, who enjoyed more leisure time and relative prosperity than ever before. These were the same people who thrilled to the exploits of a trio of American golfing heroes.
America's Golfing Dominance.
Bobby Jones, who was the dominant golfer from 1923 to 1930, is widely regarded as the sport's greatest practitioner. Jones's two major rivals during the 1920s were Walter Hagen and Gene Sarazen, and this trio of Americans became known as the Three Musketeers. Together they overshadowed everyone else in U.S. and international golf. Two of the Musketeers were largely responsible for an astonishing accomplishment between 1921 and 1930. In 1921 Jock Hutchison, a Scotsman who had moved to the United States, won the British Open at St. Andrews as an American. From that point on, American golfers claimed the tournament nine times out...
(The entire section is 1110 words.)
Olympics: The Seventh Olympic Games
Olympic Site and Timing.
Because the small country of Belgium had displayed extraordinary courage during World War I, Antwerp was selected as the site for the Seventh Olympic Games, held in August 1920. Though admirable in sentiment, the choice of Belgium was unwise since the country had neither the finances nor the time to construct proper facilities for the games; moreover, most of the competing nations were fielding underprepared and underfunded teams.
To raise money quickly, the United States developed an extensive system of spectator-financed tryouts throughout the country. As a result, $163,113.45 in gate receipts and contributions were raised, an amount that exceeded the eventual team costs of $149,261.46. Transporting the team to Europe posed a major difficulty. Many of the large American ships were still in poor condition because of their war duties, but eventually the main group of 254 athletes set out on 20 July aboard a troopship, the Princess Matioka, that had last been used to bring home American war dead.
Mutiny after the Matioka.
The ship had cramped dining and sleeping quarters and reeked of formaldehyde. American team members protested loudly during their voyage, and following their arrival in Antwerp, their expectations for improved...
(The entire section is 663 words.)
Olympics: The Eighth Olympic Games
Birth of the American Olympic Association.
To honor retiring International Olympic Committee Chairman Baron de Coubertin, the man responsible for proposing the modern Olympic Games in the early 1890s, the Eighth Olympics were held in Paris in July 1924. To resolve a power struggle among organizations hoping to direct the U.S. team, the American Olympic Association—composed of representatives from the competing groups—was created on 25 November 1921 as a permanent controlling board for American Olympic teams.
High Olympic Spirits.
With funding of $350,000, the 417-member American team departed from Hoboken, New Jersey, on 16 June on the luxurious S.S. America. The experience of the 1924 team was the antithesis of that of the 1920 team. Spirits and morale were high on the way to the games and were further buoyed by American successes.
Outstanding American Performances.
The U.S. track-and-field team won twelve gold medals, more than any other team at the Paris Olympics, yet the 1924 Olympics belonged to two athletes, Finland's Paavo Nurmi, a distance runner who won four events, and America's Johnny Weissmuller, who claimed three gold medals in swimming. Weissmuller took the 100-meter in 59 seconds, an Olympic record, and in the process beat the two-time defending champion,...
(The entire section is 600 words.)
Olympics: The Ninth Olympic Games
In 1928 the tryout system developed in 1920 received its most enthusiastic response with twelve thousand to fifteen thousand athletes competing for places on the 320-member Olympic team. The U.S. Olympic Committee raised $415,696 and spent $330,465. The U.S. Olympic Committee president, Maj. Gen. Douglas MacArthur, expressed absolute faith in the American team who would travel to Amsterdam for the July-August summer games and to Saint Moritz in February for the winter games: "Without exception our athletes have come through the long grind of training into superb condition. They are prepared both mentally and physically for the great test. Americans can rest serene and assured," MacArthur asserted. Buoyed by self-confidence, money, and talent, the Americans anticipated great success in the games. But although the United States won more gold medals than any other team—twenty-four—they did not live up to their own or others' expectations and came home disappointed.
Poor Track-and-Field Showing.
The American men's track-and-field team won eight gold medals, its worst performance in Olympic history. The United States failed to place in seven major races—the 100-meter, 200-meter, 800-meter, 1,500-meter, 5,000-meter, 10,000-meter, and the marathon. American gold medal winners were Ray Barbuti, who took the 400-meter...
(The entire section is 668 words.)
Tilden and Wills.
During the 1920s Bill Tilden and Helen Wills largely dominated tennis in America and abroad. The pair provided models of athleticism and mastery that appealed to their fellow citizens who were flocking to private and public courts in unprecedented numbers. Alongside these two tennis giants of the decade were other talented players who won major championships and who provided Tilden and Wills with the competition they required to develop their own enormous talents. Moreover, these figures were intimately involved in the explosion of interest in team play that occurred in the 1920s, whether in the women's Wightman Cup competition or the men's Davis Cup matches.
Wightman and Mallory.
Among the best of the U.S. women players were Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman and Molla Bjurdstedt Mallory. Wightman, a fierce competitor, had won four U.S. Championships between 1909 and 1919 and in the course of her long career took more than sixty titles (she also claimed in 1930 the women's squash rackets championship and won second place in a mixed-doubles badminton championship in 1936 when she was fifty). Past her prime as a player when Helen Wills emerged, she still provided able competition to the younger woman. Mallory, a Norwegian-born American, was a stronger rival, though she, too, had already seen her best tennis years when Wills...
(The entire section is 849 words.)
Yachting and Polo: Gentlemen's Sports
Sports and Wealth.During the 1920s the upper classes saw their control of American sports culture slip away. In the nineteenth century the wealthy had dictated both the type and tone of respectable athletic events, embracing such sports as cricket, track and field, golf, and lawn tennis. The principles of amateurism dominated, and sports were viewed as a means of protecting social status and instilling desired values in the young. After World War I, however, as athletic events attracted increasingly large audiences and began, in some cases, to feature professional stars, the influence of amateurism
Polo had first been played in the United States in the 1880s, but its popularity among the wealthy increased greatly during the 1920s. The British, who had originated the game in India in the 1860s, dominated international play until World War I. The...
(The entire section is 1196 words.)
Cobb, Tyrus "Ty" Raymond 1886-1961
MASTER HITTER AND BASE RUNNER
Champion and Psychotic.
Tyrus "Ty" Raymond Cobb, "the Georgia Peach," was arguably the greatest and certainly one of the most controversial baseball players in the history of the game. His biographer, Al Stump, asserts that Cobb was probably psychotic throughout his adult life; he clearly exhibited psychotic behavior, for he played with a hostile aggressiveness that provoked fistfights with opposing players, fans, umpires, managers, and his team-mates. He was a brilliant hitter and base stealer.
Cobb began his baseball career in the so-called "dead ball" era, a time when baseball was primarily a game of strategic hits, bunting, and base stealing. Cobb elevated these skills to a fine art, especially as a singles hitter. He gripped the bat with his hands wide apart in order to control placement of hits. During his twenty-four seasons he played in 3,033 games, in the course of which he had 11,429 at-bats and 4,191 base hits. His 3,052 singles and 5,863 total earned bases are records that still stand in the mid 1990s, Cobb amassed a career total of 118 home runs at a time when they were valued less than they later were to become. His runs batted in totaled 1,901, and his lifetime batting average of .367 remains the highest in baseball history. Only in his first season—when his...
(The entire section is 1489 words.)
Dempsey, William "Jack" Harrison 1895-1983
In 1950 Jack Dempsey, a member of the Boxing Hall of Fame, was selected, in a nationwide Associated Press poll, as the Fighter of the Half Century. Dempsey had come to stand for the poor, small man's triumphant battle against giant opponents and gigantic adversities; as such he was an embodiment of the 1920s pursuit of and admiration for success. After winning the heavy-weight championship in 1919, Dempsey in 1921 attracted the first $1-million boxing gate on 21 July 1921 and drew four more million-dollar-plus bouts in the course of the decade. He fought six championship bouts in seven years, losing only to Gene Tunney, who defeated him twice. His career as a fighter over, Dempsey became an icon of American boxing and, as a restaurant owner in New York City, remained a favorite with literary, movie, and political celebrities.
Dempsey developed his fighting style from his early years of riding the rails and living in hobo jungles after leaving, at age sixteen, his Manassa, Colorado, home where he worked with his father in various western copper-mining camps. His early hobo years taught him that a young man alone needed to protect himself quickly and decisively; thus, he threw brutal punches that ended bouts in early rounds, frequently in one round, and that later...
(The entire section is 1384 words.)
Gehrig, Heinrich Ludwig "Lou" 1903-1941
BASEBALLS IRON HORSE
Lou Gehrig, the New York Yankees first baseman nicknamed "the Iron Horse," on 2 May 1939 took himself out of the Yankees lineup and thereby ended his record for playing in consecutive games at 2,130 (he had broken the old record of 1,307 consecutive games in August 1934). His record had begun on 1 June 1925 when he was sent in to pinch-hit for shortstop Pee Wee Wanninger. The next day Gehrig replaced Wally Pipp, the starting Yankee first baseman, who had complained of a headache. Pipp never returned to the Yankees' first base, for Gehrig did not relinquish the position until May 1939 when his batting average had dropped to .143 and he told manager Joe McCarthy that he was hurting the team. He could not easily perform such ordinary tasks as tying his shoes or sitting in a chair or stepping off a curb. Just over a month later he learned that he had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, an incurable form of paralysis that attacks the central nervous system. He was thirty-six years old, had completed his thirteenth full...
(The entire section is 1254 words.)
Grange, Harold "Red" 1903-1991
STAR RUNNING BACK
College Football's Best.
Known as "Number 77" or "the Wheaton Iceman" or "Red" or, later, as sportswriter Grantland Rice called him, "The Galloping Ghost," Harold Grange was the decade's most famous college football player and, more than any other figure, the player who made professional football a popular spectator sport. Grange grew up in Wheaton, Illinois, where he became a star highschool halfback, averaging five touchdowns a game. One of the best coaches in the college ranks, Bob Zuppke, recruited him to play at the University of Illinois, where, from 1923 through 1925, he achieved his greatest gridiron successes. From 1925 through 1934 he played professional football but never attained the dominance he had had in college. When he retired from football, Grange had played the game for sixteen years, appearing in 237 games. He had carried the ball 4,013 times, averaging 8.1 yards per carry and two touchdowns a game, for 531 touchdowns total. He had been named All-American during each of the three years he played varsity football at Illinois and had been selected to the first All-Pro team in 1931. Later, in 1963, he would be elected to the Professional Football Hall of Fame.
First Varsity Game.
After the first day of practice for the freshman team at Illinois, Grange was so overwhelmed...
(The entire section is 1347 words.)
Jones, Robert "Bobby" Tyre, Jr. 1902-1971
CELEBRATED AMATEUR GOLFER
In a decade when athletes were frequently lured away from amateur athletics by the small fortunes promised by professional sports, Bobby Jones spent his entire golfing career as an amateur. He felt that his potentially violent temper, fueled by his desire for the perfect shot and directed toward himself, worked against his succeeding as a professional. Consequently, although he was a consummate golfing artist and acclaimed worldwide, he did not earn money from his sport until after he retired from competition at age twenty-eight.
In his entire fourteen-year career, Jones played in only fifty-two tournaments, twenty-three of which he won. He hated to practice and sometimes went as long as three months without playing golf at all. He averaged no more than eighty rounds a year, and when he did play it was most often with his father or friends, as if he were any other weekend golfer. Jones did not win a single national tournament in his first ten attempts, but in the summer of 1923 his career took off when, at the age...
(The entire section is 890 words.)
Man O' War 1917-1947
Nicknamed "Big Red" for his deep chestnut color, Man o' War was America's legendary thoroughbred race-horse. Beautiful, powerful, and seemingly invincible, he so appealed to the general American public that he is credited with popularizing a sport that had often been regarded either as a diversion for the wealthy or as a sinister lure to those addicted to "immoral" gambling.
Man o' War was bred by August Belmont I, the great American turfman for whom Belmont Park was named. The colt, a son of Fair Play, was foaled in Kentucky and sold as a yearling to Samuel D. Riddle at a Saratoga, New York, race meeting for $5,000, a notable bargain since the horse earned $249,465 in purses and, later, even more in stud fees. During 1919 and 1920, when he was two and three years old, Big Red won twenty of his twenty-one races.
Man o' War's only loss—to the appropriately named...
(The entire section is 712 words.)
Rockne, Knute 1888-1931
LEGENDARY FOOTBALL COACH
Notre Dame football coach Knute Rockne was a primary creator of modern football and of the modern college football hero. An astute promoter of the game, Rockne had an actor's gift for dramatic oratory and gesture, with which he inspired his players to near-religious fervor and captivated the popular press and throngs of spectators who felt themselves part—perhaps for the first time—of the drama played out weekly on the gridiron. Rockne changed the spectator's connection to the game, making the play literally more visible to large crowds. In the process he produced athlete-heroes for whom audiences could cheer and with whom they could identify: George Gipp, the Four Horsemen, and the Seven Mules.
Before the 1920s football formations characteristically featured tight knots of players smashing together in contests of strength that resembled rugby scrums. Rockne opened up the game by instituting his famous "box formation" and a system that emphasized speed and deception rather than brute force. His "smart football" plays were designed for...
(The entire section is 1357 words.)
Ruth, George Herman "Babe" 1894-1948
Greatest Hitter in Baseball History.
Babe Ruth single-handedly changed the character of baseball through his home run prowess, altering the game from an exercise in base-hitting, bunting, and base-stealing to a drama of long-ball hitting. For thirty-nine years he held the record for career home runs—714—which stood until 8 April 1974, when Henry Aaron hit his 715th home run in Atlanta for the Atlanta Braves. At Baseball's Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York, an entire room is devoted to Ruth's accomplishments and memorabilia. Ruth was also the first player to earn huge sums of money from baseball, an estimated $1 million in salaries and bonuses and at least another $1 million from endorsements and other enterprises.
The legend surrounding Ruth's life and career has its origins in his troubled upbringing. When he was eight years old he was sent for a few weeks to Baltimore's Saint Mary's Industrial School for boys, a home for "incorrigibles." At the age of ten he was returned to the reformatory and from age ten to twenty, he spent at least seven years there. While...
(The entire section is 1391 words.)
Tilden, William Tatem, II 1893-1953
William "Big Bill" Tilden dominated men's tennis in the 1920s. Through his dramatic play he attracted public attention to a sport that had often been regarded as unmanly, snobbish, and boring. He won the U.S. Championship for six consecutive years from 1920 through 1925 and again, at the age of thirty-six, in 1929. On 3 July 1920 he became the first American to win the men's singles title at Wimbledon, a title that he successfully defended the following year and recaptured in 1930, when he was thirty-seven. He was a member of the U.S. Davis Cup team from 1920 to 1930, leading the team to seven championships until a strong French team emerged in 1927 and beat the Americans in the finals for four years straight. In Davis Cup play he lost only one doubles match and five of the twenty-two singles matches he played, all of his losses coming after 1925. In 1925 he ran off fifty-seven winning games that, as his biographer Frank Deford notes, was "one of those rare, unbelievable athletic feats—like Johnny Unitas throwing touchdown passes in forty-seven straight games or Joe DiMaggio hitting safely in fifty-six games in a row—that simply cannot be exceeded in a reasonable universe no matter how long and loud we intone that records are made to be broken."
Born into a wealthy...
(The entire section is 1095 words.)
Wills, Helen Newington 1905-
Bright New Star.
On 19 August 1923 seventeen-year-old Helen Wills achieved national prominence when she won the women's singles final at the U.S. Championships, defeating the powerful Norwegian-born, seven-time U.S. champion, Molla Bjurdstedt Mallory. In the process Wills captivated the American public with her athleticism, her youth and striking beauty, and her poise both on and off the court. In fact, she exhibited so much public reserve that in 1922 New York Evening Mail columnist Ed Sullivan had dubbed her "Little Miss Poker Face." Wills soon became the dominant American woman tennis player of the 1920s.
Democratic Tennis—a New Wave.
Wills launched a new trend in U.S. tennis. Unlike many of the players of her own and earlier generations, she was not from the privileged eastern upper classes with their private-school training. She was, instead, the daughter of a California doctor who had handed her a racquet when she was...
(The entire section is 1021 words.)
People in the News
In 1929 University of Florida student Walter "Red" Barber delivered his first radio broadcast of a baseball game when he provided the play-by-play for his university's team. He later became known for his colorful down-home style while announcing first Cincinnati Reds' and then Brooklyn Dodgers' games.
On 16 September 1924 Jim Bottomly of the Saint Louis Cardinals set a single-game record of twelve runs batted in.
Frank Boucher, with seven goals and one assist in the nine-game playoffs, led the New York Rangers to their Stanley Cup victory in 1928. The Rangers were the first U.S. team to win professional hockey's most prestigious prize.
In 1928 Avery Brundage was named president of the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU), which divided control and direction of amateur athletics with the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).
Frank Carauna of Buffalo, New York, bowled consecutive perfect games on 4 March 1924.
On 18 February 1928 C. C. Davis won his third consecutive national horseshoe-pitching championship with thirty-one victories and three losses.
In 1922 Clarence DeMar won his first Boston Marathon in 2 hours, 18 minutes, 10 seconds, a time that would not be bettered until 1956. In all DeMar claimed the Boston title six times...
(The entire section is 1403 words.)
Major League Baseball World Series—Cleveland Indians (American), 5 vs. Brooklyn Dodgers (National), 2
Rose Bowl—Harvard, 7 vs. University of Oregon, 6
Stanley Cup, Hockey—Ottawa Senators
Bantamweight Championship, Boxing—Joe Lynch over Pete Herman
Middleweight Championship, Boxing—Johnny Wilson over Mike O'Dowd
Light Heavyweight Championship, Boxing—Georges Carpentier over Christopher "Battling" Levinsky
Kentucky Derby, Horse Racing—Paul Jones, Jockey: T. Rice
Preakness Stakes, Horse Racing—Man o' War, Jockey: C. Kummer
Belmont Stakes, Horse Racing—Man o' War, Jockey: C. Kummer
National Open Champion, Polo—Meadow Brook, 12 vs. Cooperstown, 3
Indianapolis 500—Gaston Chevrolet in a Monroe, Average Speed: 88.62 MPH
U.S. Golf Open Champion—Edward Ray
United States Auto Club National Champion—Thomas Milton
Davis Cup, Tennis—United States, 5 vs. Australia, 0
Men's Tennis Champion—William Tatem Tilden II
(The entire section is 1832 words.)
Adrian Constantine "Cap" (later "Pop") Anson, 71, baseball player for the Philadelphia Athletics and player-manager for the Chicago Cubs, who during his record twenty-seven seasons as an active player in the Major Leagues had a lifetime batting average of .399 and more than 3,500 hits, 14 April 1922.
George Archibald, 37, American steeplechase jockey who won more than one thousand races in Europe, including 180 in England, two of which were for King George V, 5 April 1927.
Louis P. Bayard Jr., 46, a Princetonian who was the first National Intercollegiate Individual Golfing Champion in 1897, 3 July 1922.
August Belmont Jr., 72, New York City subway developer, financier, thoroughbred breeder, and chairman of the American Jockey Club, 10 December 1924.
Lee Bible, 42, dirt-track racer killed while attempting to set a world's automobile speed record in a 1,500-horsepower Triplex at Daytona Beach, Florida, 13 March 1929.
Thomas E. Burke, 54, runner who as a Harvard under-graduate won Gold Medals in the 100-meter and 400-meter races at the 1896 Olympics, the first Olympic Games of modern times, 14 February 1929.
Walter Chauncey Camp, 65, football authority who in 1888 became Yale's athletic director and the following year selected the...
(The entire section is 2446 words.)
Forrest Claire Allen, My Basket-Ball Bible (Kansas City.
Mo.: Smith-Grieves, 1924);
Thornton Whitney Allen, Intercollegiate Song Book: Alma Mater and Football Songs of the American Colleges (New York: Intercollegiate Song Book, 1927);
Lou Eastwood Anderson, Tennis for Women, with Reference to the Training of Teachers (New York: Barnes, 1926);
Elmer Berry, The Philosophy of Athletics, Coaching and Character, with the Psychology of Athletic Coaching (New York: Barnes, 1927);
Sverre O. Braathen, Ty Cobb: The Idol of Baseball Fandom (New York: Avondale, 1928);
Mary Kendall Browne, Top-Flite Tennis (New York: American Sports Publishing, 1928);
William H. Carter, The Horses of the World: The Development of Mans Companion in War Camp, on Farm, in the Marts of Trade, and in the Field of Sports (Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1923);
Abel Chapman, Savage Sudan: Its Wild Tribes, Big-Game and Bird-Life (New York: Putnam, 1922);
Carrol Blaine Cook, Goin' Fishin': Weather and Feed Facts, the Fresh-Water Game Fishy the Natural and Artificial Baits and Their Use (Cincinnati: Stewart & Kidd, 1920);
John Duncan Dunn,...
(The entire section is 806 words.)
Important Events in Sports, 1920–1929
- On January 1, in the Rose Bowl Harvard beats the University of Oregon 7-6.
- On January 5, Babe Ruth is sold by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees.
- On February 14, the National Negro Baseball League (NNBL) is founded.
- On May 1, the Brooklyn Dodgers play the Boston Braves to a 1-1 tie in twenty-six innings. Boston's Joe Oeschger and Brooklyn's Leon Cadore pitch the entire game.
- On May 6, Johnny Wilson wins the world middleweight championship in a decision over Mike O'Dowd.
- On May 14, Walter Johnson of the Washington Senators wins his 300th game.
- On June 12, Man o' War runs the mile and in 2 minutes seconds at Belmont.
- On July 1, Walter Johnson of the Washington Senators pitches a no-hitter against the Boston Red Sox.
- On July 3, William Tatem Tilden II becomes the first American to win the men's singles title at Wimbledon by defeating Australian Gerald Patterson 2-6, 6-3, 6-2, 6-4.
- On July 10, Man o' War beats John P. Grier in a match race at Aqueduct. He sets a new world record of 1 minute seconds for the mile and distance.
- From July 15 to July 27, the U.S. yacht Resolute defeats Great Britain's Shamrock IV in the America's Cup race....
(The entire section is 3575 words.)