By: Queensboro Corporation
Date: August 28, 1922
Source: Queensboro Corporation. "First WEAF Commercial Continuity." August 28, 1922. Reprinted in Archer, Gleason L. History of Radio to 1926. New York: American Historical Society, 1938. Available online at; website home page: http://www.midcoast.com (accessed May 12, 2003).
Radio at the start of the 1920s featured sporadic programming at best, with only a very limited number of broadcast stations able to send signals to a tiny population of radio receivers. But the rapid development of nationwide radio networks throughout the decade revolutionized communications in the United States and dramatically influenced the structure of American media. The American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) was more widely known for its development of telephone communication, but the company also provided crucial broadcasting technology that enabled the emergence of nationwide radio networks in the 1920s. In 1922, AT&T formed radio station WEAF (later to become National Broadcasting Company) to serve as a conduit for other groups to transmit their messages to the people of New York City. Rather than providing its own programming, WEAF sold its airtime to companies wishing to advertise their...
(The entire section is 1780 words.)
Want to Read More?
Subscribe now to read the rest of this article. Plus get complete access to 30,000+ study guides!
"See the Children Safely to School"
By: Chevrolet Motor Co.
Date: March 10, 1923
Source: "See the Children Safely to School." Colliers, March 10, 1923, 19. Available online at ; website home page: http://www.azimuth.harcourtcollege.com (accessed April 25, 2003).
About the Organization: Born in Switzerland in 1878, Louis Chevrolet began his vehicle manufacturing career as a young boy, managing a bicycle shop with his two brothers after his family moved to France. Louis spent much of his life making, repairing, and racing automobiles. In 1911, heralded as one of the world's best racers, he teamed with a former Buick Company executive to establish the Chevrolet Motor Company. Although his involvement with the company was in name only after 1913, Chevrolet continued to expand its operations and eventually joined the Ford Motor Company and General Motors Corporation as one of the "Big Three" U.S. automobile manufacturers. The company's marketing campaigns excelled through much of the century, symbolized by perhaps the most famous jingle in car broadcast advertising, "See the U.S.A., in your Chevrolet," from the 1950s.
(The entire section is 854 words.)
Advertising for Women
"Teachers and Mothers are Allies in Fighting Dirt"; "What the World Expects of Women Today"; "If Only I Could Tell This to Every Business Girl"
By: Lever Brothers; Kotex Company
Date: 1923; 1926; 1929
Source: "Teachers and Mothers are Allies in Fighting Dirt." Ladies' Home Journal, 1923; "What the World Expects of Women Today." Ladies' Home Journal, 1926; "If Only I Could Tell This to Every Business Girl." Boston Post, 1929. Available online at Ad*Access (Ad nos. BH1181, BH0020, BH0244): http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/adaccess/ (accessed April 24, 2003).
About the Publication: Started in 1883 as a supplement for women in the publication Tribune and Farmer, the Ladies' Home Journal quickly increased in readership to become not only the most popular women's publication but also one of the nation's most popular magazines through much of the twentieth century. The Journal holds the distinction of being
(The entire section is 842 words.)
Sedition or Propaganda
"Spider Web Chart"
By: Lucia Maxwell
Date: March 22, 1924
Source: Maxwell, Lucia. "Spider Web Chart: The Socialist-Pacifist Movement in America Is an Absolutely Fundamental and Integral Part of International Socialism." Dearborn Independent, March 22, 1924, 11. Available online at http://womhist.binghamton.edu/wilpf/doc3.htm; website home page: http://womhist.binghamton.edu (accessed April 23, 2003).
By: Carrie Chapman Catt
Date: May 31, 1924
Source: Catt, Carrie Chapman. "Poison Propaganda." The Woman Citizen, May 31, 1924, 32–33. Available online at http://womhist.binghamton.edu/wilpf/doc4.htm; website home page: http://womhist.binghamton.edu (accessed April 25, 2003).
About the Author: Carrie Clinton Lane Chapman Catt (1859–1947) was born in Ripon, Wisconsin. After working with the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, Catt became a suffragist and helped...
(The entire section is 1593 words.)
Time and The New Yorker
"Time: The Weekly Newsmagazine (A Prospectus)"
By: Briton Hadden and Henry Luce
Source: Hadden, Briton and Henry Luce. "Time: The Weekly Newsmagazine (A Prospectus)." In Busch, Noel F. Briton Hadden: A Biography of the Co-founder of Time. New York: Farrar, Straus, 1949, 60–64.
About the Authors: Briton Hadden (1898–1929), along with Henry R. Luce, pioneered magazine journalism in the 1920s. In 1923, the pair, five years after graduating together from Yale University, created an entirely new format for news coverage—the newsweekly. Time magazine forever changed the way Americans received their news, offering brief reports and vivid pictures in a "timely" fashion.
Henry R. Luce (1898-1967), American magazine editor and publisher, was a powerful journalistic innovator. Luce worked with Hadden on the Baltimore News. They left soon after to raise $86,000 in order to launch Time magazine. After Hadden's untimely death, Luce continued to grow Time and created the business magazine Fortune in 1930 and the photography-based Life in 1936.
Cover of the First Edition
(The entire section is 1545 words.)
By: Alain Locke
Date: March 1925
Source: Locke, Alain. "Harlem." Survey Graphic, March 1925, 629–630. Available online at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/harlem/LocHarlF.html; website home page: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu (accessed April 24, 2003).
About the Author: Alain Leroy Locke (1885–1954) graduated from Harvard in 1907 and taught education at Howard University from 1912 to 1917, then philosophy from 1917 until his death. Locke was the first African American Rhodes scholar. His primary research focused on the theory that race existed only as a social construct. During the Harlem Renaissance, the controversial Locke argued for a sort of cultural pluralism following his notion that culture could be molded and enhanced. His most famous work, The New Negro, resulted from the March 1925 edition of Survey Graphic devoted to the topic.
The Great Migration of the 1910s and 1920s saw well over one million African Americans escape the discrimination of the South to the possibilities and tensions of life in the North and West. As the ensuing race riots in several urban centers...
(The entire section is 2642 words.)
"The Scopes Trial: Aftermath"
By: H.L. Mencken
Date: September 14, 1925
Source: Mencken, H.L. "Aftermath" Baltimore Evening Sun, September 14, 1925. Available online at http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/menck05.htm#SCOPESD; website home page: http://www.positiveatheism.org (accessed April 24, 2003).
About the Author: Henry Louis Mencken (1880–1956) emerged as one of the nation's most renowned and controversial social commentators. By age twenty-five, Mencken had risen from entry-level reporter to editor of the Baltimore Herald. His criticism of American social norms, and his support of Germany throughout the First World War, brought great criticism. During the war, magazines and newspapers that normally printed Mencken's reports censored him and refused to publish his work. Mencken refused to stop writing and began what would become a six-volume critique, often quite harsh, of American society and culture. Following the war, he returned to prominence by cofounding the American Mercury in 1923, which he edited until 1933. He continued to write until a series of strokes crippled him in 1948.
(The entire section is 2203 words.)
"The Four Horsemen"
By: Grantland Rice
Date: October 19, 1924
Source: Rice, Grantland. "The Four Horsemen." New York Herald-Tribune, October 19, 1924. Available online at ; website home page: http://lamb.archives.nd.edu (accessed April 24, 2003).
About the Author: Henry Grantland Rice (1880–1954), from an early age, exhibited both a love of sport and a gift for language. After graduating from Vanderbilt University, Rice began reporting stints at several metropolitan dailies before gaining a nationally syndicated column at the New York Tribune in 1914. As the nation's most influential sports journalist, he selected the All-American football team for Collier's magazine from 1925 until shortly before his death. As a radio broadcaster, he covered the World Series and many other sporting events. Prolific in all media, Rice even won two Academy Awards for his sports short films. He continues to be remembered as the author of the famous lines, "When the Great Scorer comes / To mark against your name, / He'll write not 'won' or 'lost' / But how you played the game."
The essay "The Four Horsemen" (and its creation of the moniker of the same name to represent four football...
(The entire section is 3533 words.)
Radio Act of 1927
By: U.S. Congress
Date: February 23, 1927
Source: U.S. Congress. Radio Act of 1927. Public Law No. 632, 69th Congress, February 23, 1927. Available online at http://www.geocities.com/a_h_kline/1927act.htm; website home page: http://www.geocities.com (accessed April 24, 2003).
With the public broadcast of a program at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City in January 1910, the era of radio began. World War I (1914–1918) stymied the industry's growth, as civilian radio broadcasts were suspended. Only a handful of stations operated in the years immediately after the war. The relative economic prosperity of the 1920s created the first commercial programs and the installation of hundreds of radio stations nationwide. By the end of the decade, the majority of Americans enjoyed hours of radio programming every day. Radio provided the unprecedented ability to hear music programs, news reports, and sporting events as they transpired miles away. The growing popular appeal of radio spawned a multimillion-dollar industry based upon the sending and receiving of broadcast signals, as well as the marketing of commercial time on expanding radio networks....
(The entire section is 1335 words.)
"Far-Off Speakers Seen as Well as Heard Here in Test of Television"
By: The New York Times
Date: April 8, 1927
Source: "Far-Off Speakers Seen as Well as Heard Here in Test of Television." The New York Times, April 8, 1927. Available online at http://www.att.com/spotlight/television/nytimes_article.html; website home page: http://www.att.com (accessed April 24, 2003).
Although television would not rival radio in nationwide popularity until after World War II (1939–1945), the development of technologies necessary for both broadcasting media overlapped at the turn of the century. The first radio broadcast occurred in San Jose, California, in 1908, and the first public radio broadcasts began in 1920. The ensuing decade witnessed the development of hundreds of radio stations. In the midst of the explosion of radio broadcasting during the decade, scientists conducted the first successful television transmissions in 1925.
Herbert Eugene Ives (1882–1953) invented and developed the technology used to televise moving images over long distances. Working at Bell Telephone Laboratories (BTL) in the 1920s, Ives experimented with photoelectric cells. He pursued this...
(The entire section is 4545 words.)
Sacco and Vanzetti Case Political Cartoons
"Is It Freedom?," "Have a Chair!," "An Evening Affair," "The Verdict" and "Death Warrant"
By: The Daily Worker
Date: July 20, July 22, August 9, August 10, and August 22, 1927
Source: Michigan State University, Digital and Multimedia Center. "The Case of Sacco and Vanzetti in Cartoons from the 'Daily Worker.'" Available online at ; website home page: http://digital.lib.msu.edu (accessed April 24, 2003).
About the Publication: The Daily Worker began in 1924 as the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA). Moving its headquarters from Chicago to New York City in 1927, the paper gradually grew following the 1920s Red Scare. The Great Depression decimated the American economy and provided a wave of support for leftist reform across the country. During this period, circulation increased to over thirty thousand daily subscribers. The paper campaigned for reforming American society rather than for violent revolution. It championed civil rights for African Americans, women's rights, and increased power for labor. As the Communist Party's membership disintegrated during the cold war, the paper's following dissolved as well and it ceased publication in 1957....
(The entire section is 919 words.)
The President's Daughter
By: Nan Britton
Source: Britton, Nan. The President's Daughter. New York: Elizabeth Ann Guild, 1927, i–v.
About the Author: Nan Britton (1896–1991) spent her youth in Marion, Ohio, but the known historical details of her life are few. Aside from her autobiography, The President's Daughter, little evidence remains from her life and possible relationship with the nation's twenty-ninth president, Warren G. Harding. It was in Marion that Britton became enamored with Harding, who lived much of his adult life in the small town. In 1916, at the age of nineteen, Britton apparently began an affair with the married Senator Harding that continued through his presidency. Britton wrote The President's Daughter in 1927, four years after Harding's death. She asserted that Harding had fathered her daughter, Elizabeth Ann Christian, in 1919.
Historians often rank Warren G. Harding as the worst president in American history. Elected to the White House with more than 60 percent of the vote in 1920, Harding called for a return to "normalcy" after the foreign and domestic turmoil of the war years. Although Harding served for a relatively brief period, from 1921 until his death in 1923, his administration...
(The entire section is 1910 words.)
By: New York Daily News
Date: January 13, 1928
Source: Execution of Woman in Sing Sing Prison. Daily News, January 13, 1928, 1. Available online at Daily News Pix: The Photo Archive of The New York Daily News, http://www.dailynewspix.com (accessed April 24, 2003).
About the Publication: The New York Daily News, started by Joseph Medill Patterson in 1919, was the nation's first tabloid-style paper. By the mid-1920s the Daily News reached a circulation of over one million. At the time of Patterson's death in 1946, it stood as the nation's highestcirculation paper, selling well over two million copies every weekday and more than four and a half million copies on Sundays. Patterson had a long family heritage in newspaper publishing. His father, Robert W. Patterson, served as editor of the Chicago Tribune, and his mother's father, Joseph Medill, owned it. By the early twentieth century, Joseph was copublishing the Tribune with his cousin, Robert R. McCormick, before founding the New York Daily News.
Joseph Medill Patterson's New York Daily News lowered the bar, so to speak, of American journalism during the 1920s....
(The entire section is 744 words.)