"Shorts: A Coming Fashion"
By: The Boys' Outfitter
Date: April 1920
Source: Lovat. "Shorts: A Coming Fashion." The Boys' Outfitter, April 1920. Available online at ; website home page: http://histclo.hispeed.com (accessed September 27, 2002).
"My First Long Pants"
By: Julius Raskin
Source: Raskin, Julius. "My First Long Pants." 1998. Available online at ; website home page: http://histclo.hispeed.com (accessed January 13, 2003).
About the Authors: The Boys' Outfitter was a trade magazine published from 1919 until 1932, when it was absorbed by another publication, Boy's Buyer. The Boys' Outfitter included illustrated advertisements showing the latest boys' fashions, including what boys in England and France were wearing and what trends were likely to develop in the upcoming season.
Julius Raskin (1906–1996) was born in New York. He attended college at City College of New York, where he was a star basketball player.
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The Arrow Collar Man
Arrow Collars and Shirts Advertisement
By: J.C. Leyendecker
Source: Leyendecker, J.C. Arrow Collars and Shirts Advertisement. Created for Cluett, Peabody, & Co, Inc. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. Available online at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/pp/mdbquery.html (accessed May 11,
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Egyptian Influence on Fashion
"They Watch Egypt for Fashion News"
By: The New York Times
Date: February 18, 1923
Source: "They Watch Egypt for Fashion News." The New York Times, February 18, 1923, 3.
"Egypt Dominates Fashion Show Here"; Shoecraft Advertisement
Newspaper article, advertisement
By: The New York Times
Date: February 25, 1923
Source: "Egypt Dominates Fashion Show Here," Shoecraft Advertisement. The New York Times, February 25, 1923, 12, 15. Notes About the Publication: Founded in 1850 as the Daily Times, The New York Times was originally a relatively obscure local paper. By the early twentieth century, however, it had grown into a widely known, widely read news source. Its banner, "All the News That's Fit to Print," is recognized across the United States and throughout the world.
The Egyptian craze that swept 1920s fashion was fueled by newspaper coverage of the latest treasures unearthed from King Tut's tomb. American designers in particular were quick to incorporate Egyptian motifs; within months, they created entire collections...
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By: Cecil Mack and James P. Johnson
Source: Mack, Cecil, and James P. Johnson. "Charleston." Warner Bros, Inc., 1923. Reprinted in Gottlieb, Robert, and Robert Kimball, eds. Reading Lyrics. New York: Pantheon Books, 2000.
About the Artists: Cecil Mack (1883–1944), born Richard C. McPherson in Norfolk, Virginia, wrote lyrics to many popular songs from the turn of the twentieth century through the 1920s, the height of his career. Though he lacked formal training in music or theater—;he attended Lincoln University in Pennsylvania and the University of Pennsylvania Medical School for one semester—;he was extremely successful in show business. Mack published his first lyrics in 1901, and
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Red Diving Girl
By: Jantzen, Inc.
Date: 1924, 1928
Source: Jantzen. "The Nation's Swimming Suit" and "Blonde or Brunette" advertisements. 1924; 1928.
About the Organization: Jantzen, Inc., is one of the oldest swimsuit makers in the United States. Incorporated in 1910 in Portland, Oregon, it began as the Portland Knitting Company, manufacturing sweaters. By the 1920s, the company had renamed itself Jantzen, Inc., and was focused on manufacturing swimwear.
In 1913, Portland Knitting received an order for a custom pair of wool trunks for a rower to wear while working out in the Pacific Northwest's chilly waters. The company's two owners, John Zehntbauer and Carl Jantzen, devised a knitted garment, ribbed like a sweater...
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The Autobiography of an Idea
By: Louis Sullivan
Source: Sullivan, Louis H. The Autobiography of an Idea. New York: Press of the American Institute of Architects, 1924; reprint, New York: Dover Publications, 1956, 311–314
About the Author: Louis H. Sullivan (1856–1924) was considered the "Dean of American Architects." Born in Boston, he studied architecture at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. He received his early training as a draftsman in the studios of Frank Furness and William LeBaron Jenney in Chicago. In 1883, at the age of twenty-five, Sullivan established an architectural firm with Dankmar Adler, a German engineer. Adler & Sullivan designed more than 180 buildings. Sullivan was a mentor for Frank Lloyd Wright, who joined the firm of Adler & Sullivan in 1887. Sullivan was an important member of the Chicago School, a group of architects and critics with strong views about the negative effects of modernization on American architecture. The group was highly influential throughout the decades following the Chicago Fire of 1871, which had created a great demand and need for new buildings.
IntroductionIn the late nineteenth century, architects and city planners realized that vertical expansion...
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"Here We Are Again! Confidential Tips on What to See at the Show"
By: George W. Sutton, Jr.
Date: January 1926
Source: Sutton, George W., Jr. "Here We Are Again! Confidential Tips on What to See at the Show." American Motorist, January 1926, 14, 46. Prosperity and Thrift: The Coolidge Era and the Consumer Economy, 1921–1929. American Memory digital primary source collection, Library of Congress. Available online at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/coolhtml/coolhome.html; website home page: http://memory.loc.gov (accessed May 3, 2003).
About the Publication: A booming car market in the 1920s spawned numerous motoring-enthusiast magazines. Mass production brought down automobile prices—;while a luxury car cost thousands, a Ford Model T could be bought for under $400 in 1925. An automobile culture was emerging, and membership in the American Automobile Association, an organization for drivers established in 1902, grew exponentially. AAA's magazine, American Motorist, contained practical advice on road travel and good driving skills, along with articles chronicling the growth of the automobile industry.
Fashion had been associated with driving since its...
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"What Price Beauty? Practical Budgets for Furnishings"
By: Mrs. Charles Bradley Sanders
Date: January 1926
Source: Sanders, Mrs. Charles Bradley. "What Price Beauty? Practical Budgets for Furnishings." The Delineator 82, no. 2, January 1926, 20, 55–57. Prosperity and Thrift: The Coolidge Era and the Consumer Economy, 1921–1929. American Memory digital primary source collection, Library of Congress. Available online at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/coolhtml/coolhome.html; website home page: http://memory.loc.gov (accessed January 8, 2003).
About the Publication: The Delineator, a monthly publication of Butterick Publishing Company (purveyor of dress patterns, often adapted from European fashions), was founded in 1872. Originally intended to market Butterick patterns, it quickly became a women's general-interest magazine. It specialized in fashion editorials, often with sketches of the latest Paris fashions and patterns based on these designer looks so that readers could sew the latest styles at home. The magazine also included articles about the latest trends in homemaking.
While the 1920s in Europe saw the genesis of the sleek, simplistic...
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Maidenform Brassiere Patent
By: William and Ida Rosenthal
Date: October 12, 1926
Source: Rosenthal, William. United States Patent 1,648,464. Granted November 8, 1927. United States Patent and Trademark Office. Available online at http://www.uspto.gov (accessed October 28, 2002).
About the Inventors: Ida Cohen Rosenthal (1886–1973) was born near Minsk, Russia, and emigrated to the United States in 1905. She was a dressmaker at Enid Frocks in New York City, the company that would become Maidenform, Inc. Ida's husband, William Rosenthal (18??–1958), also a Russian emigrant, oversaw the designing and tailoring at Enid Frocks. He was also an amateur sculptor. The success of their intimate apparel company enabled the Rosenthals to become major philanthropists in their later years.
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Textile Designs of the 1920s
Americana Print: Pegs
By: Charles Buckels Falls
Source: Falls, Charles B. Americana Print: Pegs. 1927. Manufactured by Stehli Silks Corp., New York. In the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
By: John Held Jr.
Source: Held, John Jr. Rhapsody. 1927. Manufactured by Stehli Silks Corp., New York. In the collection of the Allentown Art Museum, Allentown, Pa.
Mothballs and Sugar
By: Edward Steichen
Date: ca. 1927
Source: Steichen, Edward. Mothballs and Sugar. ca. 1927. Manufactured by Stehli Silks Corp., New York. In the collection of the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York.
By: Dwight Taylor
Source: Taylor, Dwight. Thrill. 1927. Manufactured by Stehli...
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"Plan—;Isometric and Elevation of a Minimum Dymaxion Home"
By: R. Buckminster Fuller
Source: Fuller, R. Buckminster. "Plan—;Isometric and Elevation of a Minimum Dymaxion Home." In Marks, Robert W. The Dymaxion World of Buckminster Fuller. New York: Reinhold Publishing, 1960, 82.
"4D House (1928)"
By: R. Buckminster Fuller
Source: Fuller, R. Buckminster. "4D House (1928)." In the archives of the Buckminster Fuller Institute. Available online at ; website home page: http://www.bfi.org (accessed July 31, 2002).
About the Designer: Richard Buckminster Fuller (1895–1983) was an inventor, mathematician, educator, philosopher, and poet. Born in Milton, Massachusetts, he attended Harvard and the U.S. Naval Academy, and served in the U.S. Navy. In the early 1920s, Fuller's four-year-old daughter died, and his company, which made the first modular housing units, folded. He contemplated suicide, but emerged from his crisis determined to do something "on behalf of all humanity." Particularly concerned with providing...
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The Schiaparelli Sweater
By: Elsa Schiaparelli
Source: The Schiaparelli Sweater. In Schiaparelli, Elsa. Shocking Life. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1954, 33.
About the Designer: Elsa Schiaparelli (1896–1973) was born in Rome as a French citizen of Italian, Scottish, and Egyptian descent. Convent-educated, she studied languages and philosophy; a volume of her poetry was published when she was a teenager. In 1919, Schiaparelli moved to New York City with her husband, who subsequently abandoned her while she was pregnant. Schiaparelli had to reinvent herself in order to survive and raise her daughter. From forsaken
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The Metropolis of Tomorrow
Essay, Architectural designs
By: Hugh Ferriss
Source: Ferriss, Hugh. The Metropolis of Tomorrow. New York: Ives Washburn, 1929, 15–17, 59, 65, 69, 87.
About the Author: Hugh Ferriss (1889–1962) was America's foremost "delineator"—;architectural renderer—;in the 1920s and throughout the next three decades. Ferriss received an architecture degree from Washington University in St. Louis in 1911, then worked for two years as a draftsman for Cass Gilbert, architect of the Woolworth Building in New York City. In 1915, he started a career as an independent delineator. By 1921, Ferriss was already well known and highly sought after. He documented existing architecture and was commissioned by more than a hundred architectural firms to create presentation drawings for proposed building projects. He also produced design sketches for city planners, trade journals, newspapers and magazines, and advertisements. Ferriss's futuristic cityscapes were displayed in department store windows and architecture shows. His work greatly influenced the film, painting, and architecture of his time.
In 1922, Ferriss collaborated with skyscraper architect and city planner Harvey Wiley Corbett to publish a series of drawings...
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Men at Work
Nonfiction work, Photographs
By: Lewis W. Hine
Source: Hine, Lewis W. "The Spirit of Industry." Introduction to Men At Work: Photographic Studies of Modern Men and Machines. New York: Dover, 1977.
About the Author: Lewis Wickes Hine (1874–1940) was born in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. While teaching at the Ethical Culture School in New York City, he began using the camera as an educational tool and to record school activities. Hine developed an interest in social photography while documenting immigrants arriving at Ellis Island, and took on freelance assignments for the National Child Labor Committee. His images of child laborers throughout the United States helped bring about legislative reforms. Hine also produced influential photo essays on the activities of the American Red Cross in World War I, on New York tenements, and on miners and factory workers.
Planning for the Empire State Building began in 1928. The architecture firm of Shreve, Lamb, & Harmon Associates was retained to design the commercial office tower. Construction began in January 1930, and the building was completed in just sixteen months. At 102 stories, or 1,252 feet high, the Empire became the tallest skyscraper in the world, surpassing the...
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Portrait of Myself
By: Margaret Bourke-White
Source: Bourke-White, Margaret. Portrait of Myself. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1963, 76–80.
About the Author: Margaret Bourke-White (1904–1971) was born in the Bronx in New York City and raised in rural New Jersey. Although she received her undergraduate degree in herpetology (the study of reptiles), she had a long-standing interest in photography and became a commercial photographer upon completing college. She quickly established herself as a top industrial photographer, beginning with her first assignments for Otis Steel Company in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1927. Her work then garnered the attention of magazine publishers, and she was hired as the first photographer for Fortune magazine when it debuted in 1929. She moved to New York, where she created magazine photo-essays and took on advertising assignments as well. Her work appeared on the first cover of Life magazine in 1935. Bourke-White became a leader in the new field of photojournalism, documenting the suffering during the Depression and serving as a war correspondent in combat zones during World War II. After retiring from photography, she wrote six books on her international travels.
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