By: Charles Proteus Steinmetz
Source: Steinmetz, Charles. The Future of Electricity. New York: Electrical Trade School, 1910.
About the Author: Charles Proteus Steinmetz (1865–1923) was born in Prussia. Like his father, he was very short in stature, about four feet three inches. He attended the University of Breslau but left just before he would have been granted his degree with honors. Fearful of being persecuted for socialist activities, he emigrated to America, where he prospered as an electrical engineer at General Electric Co. and a professor at Union College in Schenectady, New York.
In 1910, when Charles Steinmetz spoke to students at the New York Electrical Trade School, the electric industry was still relatively young. Most electric power generated in America was used for lighting and for electric streetcars. Later in the decade, however, new electric appliances, such as the vacuum cleaner, the toaster, and the iron, would create a huge demand for electric power and catalyze the buildup of the electric distribution system across the nation. Large electric generating power plants were being built by companies such as the Edison Electric Illuminating Company and the Westinghouse Electric...
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The Mind of Primitive Man
By: Franz Boas
Source: Boas, Franz. The Mind of Primitive Man. Rev. ed. New York: Macmillan, 1938, 3–6, 15–18.
About the Author: Franz Boas (1858–1942) was born in Minden, Germany, but moved to the United States at age twenty-eight. His first job in New York was as editor of the prestigious journal Science. He later went on to serve as president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the governing body that still publishes the journal today. He filled several teaching posts before settling at Columbia University. He established the International Journal of American Linguistics and was one of the founders of the American Anthropological Association.
In The Mind of Primitive Man, Boas examines in detail what was meant by the terms race and culture in the early twentieth century. Culture includes language, art, religion, morals, laws, ceremonies, and any other capability or habit acquired by man as a member of society. The concept of culture is primarily seen as unique to human beings and sets us apart from all other animals.
In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, anthropology was largely ethnocentric. Most...
(The entire section is 2750 words.)
"Manufacture of Gasolene"
By: William Burton
Date: January 7, 1913
Source: Burton, William. "Manufacture of Gasolene." U.S. patent 1,049,667. 1913. Available online at http://www.uspto.gov/patft/index.html (accessed March 20, 2003).
About the Author: William Merriam Burton (1865–1954) was born in Cleveland, Ohio. He received a B.S. from Western Reserve University in 1886 and a Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University in 1889. Following his education Burton went to work for the Standard Oil Company. At Standard Oil he went from chemist to refinery superintendent, company director, vice president, and finally in 1918, president. He served as president of Standard Oil from 1918 until he retired in1927.
Petroleum is one of the most important natural resources in the world. Petroleum and other fossil fuels were made millions of years ago from decaying plant material. Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons (molecules made of carbon and hydrogen). When it comes from out of the ground it is often called crude oil. It can be red, green, yellow, brown, or black and can be as thick as paste or as thin as water.
The uses for petroleum in America have evolved over...
(The entire section is 993 words.)
"On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules"
By: Niels Bohr
Source: Niels Bohr. "On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules." Philosophical Magazine series 6, vol. 26, July 1913, 1–25, 476–502, 857–875. Available online at (accessed March 1, 2003).
About the Author: Niels Henrik David Bohr (1885–1962) was born in Copenhagen, Denmark. Upon graduation from high school in 1903, Bohr entered the University of Copenhagen, where he majored in physics. He conducted a research project on the surface tension of water as evidenced in a vibrating jet stream. He received his Ph.D. in 1911. His thesis centered on the electron theory of metals. Bohr was awarded numerous prizes for his scientific achievements, such as the Hughes Medal from the Royal Society, 1921; Nobel Prize in physics, 1922; and Atoms for Peace Award from the Ford Foundation, 1957. Bohr married Margarethe Norlund in 1912, and they had six children.
In the early twentieth century, the fundamental nature of the building blocks of matter and energy were coming into view. The electron was discovered in 1897, and many scientists were putting their efforts into determining the electron's location in the atom.Around this time, physicist Ernst Rutherford proposed a...
(The entire section is 1635 words.)
"Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It"
By: John B. Watson
Source: John B. Watson. "Psychology As the Behaviorist Views It." Psychological Review 20, 1913, 158–177. Available online at http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Watson/views.htm; website home page: http://psychclassics.yorku.ca (accessed May 15, 2003).
About the Author: John Broadus Watson (1878–1958) was born in Greenville, South Carolina. He received his master's degree from Furman College in 1900 and his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1903. Watson remained at this school to teach and study the behavior of rats. In 1908, he moved to Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. Here Watson set up a laboratory to run psychological experiments, and he continued to study animal behavior as well as the behavior of small children.
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"A Direct Photoelectric Determination of Planck's 'h'"
By: Robert A. Millikan
Date: March 1916
Source: Millikan, Robert, A. "A Direct Photoelectric Determination of Planck's' h '." Physical Review 7, March 1916, 355–357, 359, 360–361, 374–375, 383, 388.
About the Author: Robert A. Millikan (1868–1953) was born in Morrison, Illinois. He received his doctorate from Columbia University and taught physics at the University of Chicago (1896–1921) and at the California Institute of Technology from 1921 until 1945. Among Millikan's many achievements, he was president of the American Physical Society, director of the National Research Council, and Nobel laureate for Physics in 1923.
Robert A. Millikan's contributions to science include three important verifications of the wave-particle duality. The wave-particle duality is the principle that subatomic particles possess some wavelike characteristics and that electromagnetic waves, such as light, possess some particle-like characteristics. Evidence for the wave-particle duality accumulated from 1900 to 1920. However, it was not until 1923 that Louis De Broglie postulated the wave-particle theory. Millikan's contributions toward the development of the theory were threefold and involved providing...
(The entire section is 2716 words.)
Psychology of the Unconscious
By: Carl Jung
Source: Jung, Carl G. Psychology of the Unconscious: A Study of the Transformations and Symbolism of the Libido. Beatrice M. Hinkle, trans. 1916. Reprint, New York: Dodd, Mead, 1965, 37–41.
About the Author: Carl Jung (1875–1961), the son of a Protestant clergyman, was born in Kesswil, Switzerland. He studied at the University of Basel from 1895 to 1900, receiving his medical degree from the University of Zurich in 1902. He later studied psychology in Paris, but had an interest in many subjects such as biology, zoology, paleontology, and the history of religion. In 1903, he married Emma Rauschenbach. The couple had five children and lived in Kusnacht on the Lake of Zurich, where he died on June 6, 1961.
Psychology of the Unconscious: A Study of the Transformations and Symbolisms of the Libido was the first work Carl Jung published after his split with Sigmund Freud. From about 1909 until about 1912, Jung and Freud were close collaborators, Jung having even been called a Freud disciple. However, Jung disagreed with some of the particulars of Freud's psychoanalytic theory in the latter's Psychology of the Unconscious. Primarily, he did not agree that libido...
(The entire section is 2011 words.)
"The Atom and the Molecule"
By: Gilbert N. Lewis
Source: Lewis, Gilbert, N. "The Atom and the Molecule." Journal of the American Chemical Society 34, 1916, 763–785.
About the Author: Gilbert Newton Lewis (1875–1946) was born in Weymouth, Massachusetts. His early education was a bit informal, as he was home-schooled until the age of thirteen. While still in his teens, he took courses from the University of Nebraska and received a bachelor's degree in chemistry and a Ph.D. from Harvard. Lewis spent a long and distinguished career at the University of California, Berkeley.
The nature of a chemical bond is of utmost importance in chemistry. The strength and character of the bonds that join one atom with another determines such fundamental chemical properties as reactivity, boiling and melting points, and color.
There are two main types of chemical bonds, ionic and covalent. An ionic bond joins two polar atoms together. It is much more prevalent in inorganic compounds like salts, minerals, and metals. In an ionic bond, electrons are transferred from one atom to another atom.
The counterpart of the ionic bond is the covalent bond. Covalent bonds typically join two nonpolar...
(The entire section is 2823 words.)
"Globular Clusters and the Structure of the Galactic System"
By: Harlow Shapley
Date: February 1918
Source: Shapley, Harlow. "Globular Clusters and the Structure of the Galactic System." Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 30, no. 173, February 1918, 42, 46–48, 50–51, 54. Available online at http://adsabs.harvard.edu/ (accessed March 12, 2003).
About the Author: Harlow Shapley (1885–1972) was born on a farm near Nashville, Missouri. At age fifteen, Shapley attended a business school in Kansas for several months, then spent a year as a newspaper crime reporter and a police reporter. Wanting more education, he entered the Presbyterian Carthage Collegiate Institute, finishing the equivalent of six years of high school in a year and a half. He next attended the University of Missouri. Intending to major in journalism but finding that department not yet open, he chose astronomy. He was hired as a teaching assistant during his third year, and obtained a M.A. degree in 1911. During his fourth year he won a fellowship to Princeton University, where he was awarded his Ph.D. degree in 1913. Shapley married Martha Betz in 1914, and they had five children.
The first solid evidence pinpointing the location of...
(The entire section is 2642 words.)
Report on the Relativity Theory of Gravitation
By: Arthur Eddington
Source: Eddington, Arthur. Report on the Relativity Theory of Gravitation. London: Fleetway Press, 1918, v, 82–84.
About the Author: Arthur Eddington (1882–1944) was born at Kendal, Westmoreland, England. Before he was sixteen years old, he won a scholarship to Owen's College, where he studied mathematics and physics. He graduated with a degree in physics in 1902 and won a scholarship to Trinity College in Cambridge, where he concentrated in mathematics. Eddington was the head of his class in 1904 and graduated in only three years. Following graduation, Eddington was appointed chief assistant at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich. From 1906 to 1913 he received training in astronomy and made two research voyages. He eventually became professor of astronomy and the director of the observatory.
Early in the twentieth century, Newtonian physics dominated scientific thinking. Isaac Newton, perhaps one of the most brilliant scientists in history, put forth theories on motion and gravity in the late seventeenth century. The famous story goes that Newton conceived the law of gravity when an apple fell from a tree and hit him on the head. He deduced that the apple fell to the earth...
(The entire section is 2679 words.)
The Physical Basis of Heredity
By: Thomas Hunt Morgan
Source: Morgan, Thomas Hunt. The Physical Basis of Heredity. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1919. Reproduced online at http://www.esp.org/books/morgan/physical-basis/facsimile/ti... ; website home page: http://www.esp.org (accessed May 16, 2003).
About the Author: Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866–1945) was born in Kentucky. He received the B.S. degree in 1886 from the State College of Kentucky, and then attended Johns Hopkins University for graduate work. Morgan did research on the regeneration of earthworms and in 1890 received the Ph.D. degree with a thesis on the embryology of sea spiders. In 1891, he was appointed associate professor of biology at Bryn Mawr College, and later in 1904 acted as professor of experimental zoology at Columbia University. Morgan carried out an outstanding amount of research and published over 400 papers and fifteen books.
The concept of a gene was first discussed in the late 1860s by Gregor Mendel, an Augustinian monk. Mendel crossbred different types of pea plants and made note of the characteristics of the offspring. He observed...
(The entire section is 2219 words.)
A General Introduction to Psycho-Analysis
By: Sigmund Freud
Source: Freud, Sigmund. A General Introduction to Psycho-Analysis: A Course of Twenty-Eight Lectures Delivered at the University of Vienna. 1920. Reprint. New York: Liveright, 1935, 17–24.
About the Author: Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) was born in Freiberg, Moravia (now Czechoslovakia). He was the son of a wealthy Jewish wool merchant and was raised in Vienna. Freud attended the local elementary school and attended high school from 1866 to 1873. He studied Greek and Latin, mathematics, history, and the natural sciences. A superior student, he entered the University of Vienna and received his doctor of medicine degree. Freud was a physically small man. He loved to read, travel, and was a collector of archeological oddities. He valued the companionship of friends and enjoyed playing cards. Freud married Martha Bernays in 1887, and they had six children.
A General Introduction to Psycho-Analysis contains twenty-eight lectures Freud delivered to psychology students at the University of Vienna during the period 1915–1917. These lectures constituted the first textbook on the theory of psychoanalysis.
Freud's psychoanalytic theory grew out of his treatment...
(The entire section is 4419 words.)