Topics in the News
The Great Influenza Epidemic of 1918-1919
A Little Bird.
America was still at war on 27 August 1918 when two sailors reported to sick bay at Common-wealth Pier in Boston. By 31 August the Navy Receiving Ship had 106 flu cases. In September an estimated eighty-five thousand people in Massachusetts had contracted the disease, and hundreds died of flu and pneumonia. Little girls at school in Massachusetts jumped rope to a new ditty at recess, not knowing that within the coming month seven hundred people would die in Philadelphia in a single day:
I had a little bird
And its name was Enza.
I opened the window
The Terrible Pandemic.
In early May of 1918 news coming from Madrid told of a mysterious malady that was raging through Spain in the form of what was often called "the grippe." Symptoms included much sneezing, reddening and running of the eyes and nose, chills followed by a fever of 101 to 103 degrees, aching back and joints, loss of appetite, and a general feeling of debility. It differed from the grippe in that it was more severe and more likely to lead to pneumonia. Soon after, a similar epidemic struck in Switzerland, France, England, and Norway. Carried from Europe in ocean liners and troop transports, the flu would spread all over the East Coast by mid September. By the end of October flu deaths had...
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The Growth of Group Practice
Private Group Practices.
Private group medical practices, constituting a middle road between the individual practice common in the early 1900s and the prospect of nationalized medicine predicted by some, found growing acceptance during the 1910s. Arising mainly in the Mid-west, private group practices, also called private group clinics or group medicine, collected physicians into a single organization, often with business managers and technical assistants. These clinics were usually made up of not more than ten physicians who used common equipment, were jointly responsible for patients, and pooled their incomes. Advocates claimed that such clinics improved the quality of service without increasing fees and saved the patient's time. Some doctors contributed capital and became owners, while other physicians remained employees. The period from 1914 to 1920, and especially from 1918 to 1920, saw a high rate of growth in private group practices.
The Mayo Clinic.
Group practice originated in America with the Mayo Clinic. The Mayo family practice began when brothers William and Charles Mayo joined their father in building up a popular general practice beginning in the 1880s. The family specialized in surgery and as years passed invited other doctors, young physicians who were proficient in the new diagnostic techniques, to join them. The Mayos...
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Compulsory health insurance began in Germany in 1883 when Chancellor Otto Bismarck introduced it along with other social rights in lieu of granting wider political rights. It was adopted in modified form in Britain through the efforts of David Lloyd George in 1911. But a consciousness of the need for medical relief was slow to develop in the United States. Most American sickness benefits were provided by small immigrant benefit societies and local chapters of fraternal orders and unions. While American workers bought life insurance policies from commercial insurance companies, they spent their money to insure their escaping a pauper's funeral, not to buy better health. Reformers outside government rather than political leaders took the initiative in calling for health insurance measures. The first workmen's compensation law in the country was enacted in Wisconsin on 3 May 1911. By 1915 workmen's compensation laws had been passed by some twenty states. Such laws applied only to disabilities arising from employment. There was no other form of legally required health insurance.
The American Association for Labor Legislation.
The American Association for Labor Legislation (AALL), founded in 1906, was at the center of the push for health insurance. The AALL's major concern was occupational disease, and its first major success came...
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The American College of Surgeons.
The 1910s marked a major period of reform in hospitals. In few countries was the growth of the modern hospital so rapid as it was in the United States. Many new hospitals were built in American cities throughout the nineteenth century, as the population rapidly increased, and anesthesias, antisepsis, and medical technology began to make the hospital a necessity. In the twentieth century every community, regardless of size, seemed to believe that it must have its own hospital. In 1912 Congress recognized the increasingly important work of hospital laboratories by a special act, authorizing them to "study and investigate the diseases of man." The American College of Surgeons (ACS), founded in 1913, provided the major impetus for improving the work done in American hospitals in the 1910s. Under the college's strict membership requirements, surgeons desiring membership had to submit one hundred case histories of operations. Many surgeons could not do so because their hospitals kept no detailed case records and often lacked laboratories and X-ray equipment. The ACS then created a whole system of requirements for the accreditation of hospitals.
The American College of Surgeons required hospitals to have an organized medical staff; keep accurate clinical records for each patient; maintain...
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Medicine in World War I
By the time the United States entered World War I in April 1917, improvements in medical education, medical skills, and medical resources meant that the country was far better prepared to grapple with the problems that would arise. In 1916 President Woodrow Wilson appointed a Council of National Defense that included a medical division headed by Dr. Franklin Martin of Chicago. With the cooperation of the American Medical Association and the American College of Surgeons, Dr. Martin organized the medical profession for the war effort. Once war was declared, much of the work of the medical division was planned and controlled by its executive committee, which included the three surgeons general of the army, the navy and the U.S. Public Health Service, together with noted physicians from major medical centers throughout the country.
Poor Health and Death from Disease.
The physical examinations of U.S. recruits for the war revealed a startling amount of general poor health. More than one-third of the young men drafted were rejected on physical grounds. Many of these rejected men had problems that could have been corrected had they had timely and proper medical attention. For those who were healthy enough to enter military service, disease contracted in one of the military's thirty-two training camps threatened health more than...
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Nurses in World War I
Nurses and Wars.
The history of nursing is also the history of war, for times of war have seen the major advances and achievements of nursing. The English nurse Florence Nightingale, pioneer and founder of modern nursing, became the "Lady with a Lamp" in the Crimean War (1854-1855). During the Civil War the United States produced women such as Clara Barton who greatly influenced nursing. World War I, the first conflict in which nurses had professional training, made the nation realize its reliance on nurses and the crucial need to prepare them to meet the medical needs of war. When the United States declared war on Germany in April 1917, the American Red Cross Nursing Service, under the direction of Jane Delano, began to serve as a recruitment and training agency, equipping nurses for overseas duty. Approximately twenty thousand nurses were as-signed to military service, many of them remaining abroad after the war to assist with postwar relief programs.
Government authorities insisted that only trained nurses be sent to France with the army, but as the war progressed the supply of nurses was too small to meet both military and domestic needs. To meet the demand and maintain training standards, M. Adelaide Nutting, Annie Goodrich, and Lillian Wald met on 24 June 1917 and formed the National Emergency Committee on...
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Preventive Medicine and Public Health
The United States Public Health Service.
The discoveries of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch in the 1870s provided a scientific foundation for preventive medicine and public health. Early public health efforts were directed at cleaning up the environment, and public health
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Psychological Testing in the Military
The measurement of intelligence forced its way into Americans' public consciousness during World War I, when some 1.7 million U.S. recruits were tested by the army under the direction of Col. Robert M. Yerkes. The findings provided the first large-scale evidence from the "science of mental testing" that American-born blacks and some of the foreign-born draftees scored lower on intelligence tests than did American-born whites. After the war the army's system of scoring was translated into mental age levels, and the results were made public. According to the scales and the method of calculation then in use, it was estimated that the average army draftee had a mental age of about fourteen years. These tests initiated a debate that has gone on ever since. What is intelligence? Can it be measured?
The Army Alpha Tests.
The army had no intention of committing itself to a definition of intelligence. To achieve the goal of classifying recruits quickly—weeding out the "feeble-minded" and identifying candidates for officers' training—the army asked a committee of psychologists to assemble a series of tests by drawing on the different existing systems, including the Stanford - Binet test. The committee tried their series of tests out in a few camps, timing the participants. The number of text items and the time limits...
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The Pure Food and Drug Act.
The Pure Food and Drug Act passed by Congress in 1906, in part as a response to muckraking reporter Samuel Hopkins Adams's exposés in Collier's Weekly, did not have as great an effect as was hoped on the patent medicine market that Adams estimated to be worth $75 million a year. While the law discouraged the adulteration of foods and drugs and the misrepresentation of claims on labels and also led to somewhat improved sanitary conditions, it directly affected only the most brazen abuses. It did not call for the reporting of all ingredients, except in the case of narcotics; it only banned statements on the label of a drug about its composition that were "false and fraudulent." The 1906 act also did not apply at first to claims about the effectiveness of drugs or to statements made in newspaper advertisements. Unintimidated nostrum manufacturers believed the existence of the act would lead consumers to think that whatever was sold had received some form of government approval.
Amendments to the 1906 Act.
The 1906 law did not cover cosmetics, obesity cures, the newer habit-forming drugs, or curative devices of a mechanical nature. In 1910, for example, Albert Adams could market his "spondylotherapy" cancer treatment with impunity. Adams sold an electrical "dynamizer" on which a patient was directed to...
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The Revolution in Medical Education
Once it was easy to become a doctor. During the nineteenth century the United States saw the emergence of an estimated four hundred proprietary medical schools. Set up to offer medical degrees as part of profit-making ventures, these schools generally had low standards of instruction, poor facilities, and admitted anyone who could pay the tuition. Since the proprietary schools competed with so many other for-profit schools as well as schools affiliated with universities, they advertised incentives to get students for their programs. One school gave free trips to Europe upon graduation to any students who regularly paid fees in cash for three years. Anyone who had the money could get a medical degree and practice medicine. In many of the private proprietary schools, degrees were granted after one year of courses that consisted chiefly of listening to lectures.
At the turn of the century some members of the medical profession were concerned that a great discrepancy had opened up between medical science and medical education. In 1904 the American Medical Association (AMA) contracted with the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching to undertake a comprehensive study of medical education. The Carnegie Foundation commissioned Abraham Flexner, the dean of Johns Hopkins University, to do a survey by...
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The New Surgery.
The discoveries of anesthesia in 1846 and antiseptics in 1865 as well as the rapid expansion of radiology not only set the stage for further developments in established surgical procedures but also opened new fields for surgeons. Because of improved methods and technology, surgical procedures that a generation before had been contemplated with anxiety were viewed in 1910 as almost routine. By the beginning of World War I a surgical revolution established new directions for surgical practice, especially in the realm of neurosurgery, and by the war's end other new contributions to surgery had been made.
Modern neurosurgery began in 1907 when Harvey Williams Cushing performed an operation for trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux) at Johns Hopkins. Cushing's main contribution to the field of neurosurgery was to develop precision techniques that steadily improved operative effectiveness. One of the main difficulties faced in early brain surgery was almost uncontrollable bleeding; because the texture of brain tissue differed from that of other body tissues, it was not possible to stop bleeding in the brain by already established methods. Cushing developed tiny silver clips for bleeding points in the brain to achieve bloodless operations. Always teaching his students to handle tumors and brain material with gentleness,...
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Technological and Medical Research Advances
The Artificial Kidney.
Among the milestones in medical technology in the 1910s was the first successful application of renal dialysis to living animals in 1913. Three physicians from Johns Hopkins University—John J. Abel, Leonard G. Rowntree, and B. B. Turner—devised an apparatus to pass all the blood out of the body of a living dog through a branching network of collodion tubes immersed in a bath. They "cleansed" the blood by rinsing out toxic amounts of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) while the blood was outside the body and restored the blood to the body without danger to the animal's life. The device was so similar in its action to the function of the kidney that the three physicians referred to it as the "artificial kidney." While the doctors did not apply their dialysis method to humans, they predicted that an artificial kidney would one day be used to treat acute renal failure in human beings. One of the problems the doctors had to solve in their experiment was preventing the blood from clotting while it flowed through the artificial vessels. Leeches were known to secrete an anticlotting factor as they sucked blood, so Abel ground up the heads of thousands of leeches to use their anticoagulant properties in order to keep the dog's blood from clotting in the collodion tubing. Before the technique could be used on humans, researchers would need to find a more readily available...
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The War on Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis, also known as consumption and "the Great White Plague," was a thoroughly democratic disease. The poor were especially susceptible, but the rich and famous could not escape its ravages. Tuberculosis is a highly contagious, bacteria-borne illness. Its victims inhale a droplet of liquid or speck of dust bearing a few virulent tubercle bacilli. When these organisms succeed in entering one of the tiny air sacs in the lung, they are in an ideal breeding ground. Within a few weeks the tubercle bacilli spread, first to the lymph nodes and then into the bloodstream and throughout the body. Most of the time the body's white blood cells can fight off the infection, but in 10 to 15 percent of the cases the disease gradually begins to dissolve the lung tissue, and symptoms such as coughing begin to occur. The severely infected cough up bright red blood, show a daily fever, lose weight, and tire easily. If the disease remains untreated, it often leads to death. At the end of the nineteenth century tuberculosis accounted for a seventh of all deaths, and in the 1910s it continued to cause more deaths than any other contagious disease.
By 1910 enough scientific information had been collected to describe completely how the bacterial disease affected the lungs and other tissues. But scientific research had not...
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What Could We Do about Cancer in 1913?
Educating the Public.
By 1910 advances in public health began to bring many deadly communicable diseases under control. But it would be the chronic illnesses such as heart disease and cancer that would pose the most alarming and challenging medical problems of the century. Cancer was a mysterious and feared disease, but as the professional standing of physicians rose, they began to define cancer as a problem solvable by medical management. In May 1913 the Ladies' Home Journal published an article titled "What Can We Do About Cancer? The Most Vital and Insistent Question in the Medical World," by Samuel Hopkins Adams, famous from the preceding decade for his work against medical fraud and patent medicines. This was the first publication about cancer aimed at the general public, and it reflected the level of knowledge about the disease at that time. When Adams asked a group of specialists, "What causes cancer?" everyone made the same reply: "I do not know." But when he asked, "What is to be done about it?" the answer was again unanimous: "Educate the people save themselves." For Americans in the 1910s cancer had risen to the fifth or sixth leading cause of death and in some areas was as high as third, surpassed in the number of its victims only by tuberculosis and pneumonia. According to Dr. Thomas S. Cullen, the chairman of the Cancer Campaign Committee of the Congress of Surgeons of...
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Goldberger, Joseph B. 1874-1929
THE PELLAGRA DETECTIVE
The Microbe Hunter.
Joseph Goldberger was a Hungarian who immigrated to the United States with his family at the age of seven. They lived in the East Side of Manhattan and ran a grocery store where Joseph worked as a delivery boy. A bright student, he entered the City College of New York at age sixteen. Goldberger first planned to become a civil engineer, but two years after he dropped in on a lecture at Bellevue Hospital Medical College, he changed his mind and decided to become a doctor. After graduating from Bellevue Hospital Medical College in 1895, he had a private practice until he joined the United States Public Health Service in 1899. For the next fourteen years he was a microbe hunter, fighting yellow fever, dengue fever, typhus, and typhoid in the United States and Mexico. His most important battle, however, remained ahead.
A Mysterious Malady.
The disease pellagra was first described in the United States during the Civil War and was probably one of the causes of the high death rate in the Southern prison camps. Pellagra is characterized by an extreme form of dermatitis, digestive disorders that include diarrhea, and nervous and mental abnormalities. Between 1909 and 1913 two surveys confirmed that pellagra was widespread in the South and also seemed to support the view that...
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Kendall, Edward Calvin 1886-1972
Edward C. Kendall was born on 8 March 1886 in South Norwalk, Connecticut, the third of eight children. He received his Ph.D. in chemistry from Columbia University in 1910 and then worked for a year as a research chemist for Parke, Davis and Company in Detroit, where he took on the task of extracting the thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland. Hormones are natural secretions of the endocrine glands that serve as the chemical messengers of the body; they are potent substances that activate, coordinate, and regulate the phenomena of life. Although scientists had theorized that the thyroid gland must produce some substance that was directly delivered into the blood, no one had yet succeeded in isolating and chemically identifying the thyroid hormone.
Unhappy with his experience in a commercial laboratory, Kendall accepted an offer to set up a new biochemical laboratory at Saint Luke's Hospital, New York, where he continued his work on the thyroid. At Saint Luke's, Kendall found the closer association with physicians and patients that he felt was necessary for his research on medical problems. He suffered a setback when Saint Luke's Hospital ran out of funds for his research. In 1914 he wrote to Louis B. Wilson, the chief of the Laboratory Division of the Mayo Clinic,...
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Mayo, William James 1861-1939 and Mayo, Charles Horace 1865-1939
FOUNDERS OF THE MAYO CLINIC
Image Pop-Up(left to right) Charles and William Mayo joined their father to form the first and most famous medical group practice in the country, the Mayo Clinic.
A New Way of Practicing Medicine.
Brothers and outstanding surgeons, William James Mayo and Charles Horace Mayo along with their father, William Worrall Mayo (1819-1911), founded the world-famous Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, one of the nation's first efforts at practicing medicine through group practice. The clinic began as part of Saint Mary's Hospital, which was opened in 1889 by the Sisters of Saint Francis with the help of the William Worrall Mayo, who had immigrated to the United States from England in 1845 and settled in Rochester as a country doctor. The three Mayos named their part of Saint Mary's the Mayo Clinic in 1903. Although the Mayo Clinic began as a surgical clinic, it became a full medical center in 1915 when the clinic's facilities were expanded, and the brothers began to attract other renowned physicians from all over the world. At that time they also founded the Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research as part of the University of Minnesota....
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Meyer, Adolf 1866-1950
A LEADER OF AMERICAN PSYCHIATRY
Adolf Meyer was the leading non-Freudian psychiatric theorist in the United States. He was born on 13 September 1866 in Niederweningen, Switzerland, the son of a minister and the nephew of a doctor, and grew up in an atmosphere of liberalism and reflection. Meyer was trained in neurobiology and neurophysiology at the University of Zurich, where he received his M.D. degree in 1892. He had hoped for the post of assistant to the professor of medicine at Zurich, but when this was denied him he decided to go to the United States. His first appointment was as a pathologist at the Illinois Eastern Hospital for the Insane at Kankakee, Illinois. Meyer soon became acquainted with the work of psychologist William James, the philosopher-educator John Dewey, and others who were molding psychology and philosophy. He blended these different influences into a concept of human behavior that he called ergasiology or psychobiology, which sought to integrate the psychological and biological study of human beings.
The Phipps Clinic.
In 1910 Meyer became a professor of psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University. In 1914 he was named the first director of the Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic, a position he held until his retirement in 1941. Under his leadership the Phipps Clinic became one of...
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Morgan, Thomas Hunt 1866-1945
FATHER OF MODERN GENETICS
Science and the Fruit Fly.
After the Moravian monk Gregor Johann Mendel's discoveries in the mid nineteenth century, the next major contributor to the understanding of genetic principles was Thomas Hunt Morgan. Morgan was born in Lexington, Kentucky, on 25 September 1866 and received his college degree from the State College of Kentucky. He received his Ph.D. in comparative anatomy and physiology from Johns Hopkins in 1890 and then became professor of biology at Bryn Mawr College. In 1904 he went to Columbia University where he became a professor of experimental zoology. Morgan's extensive experiments in genetics began in 1909 when, following a suggestion made by Professor W. E. Castle of Harvard, he began his lifelong work with the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.
The Mystery of Genetics.
Mendel was the first to recognize that inherited characteristics were transmitted by discrete units as opposed to the theories of the blending of body fluids that existed in his time. But it would remain for Morgan to reveal the mystery of heredity. Working with fruit flies, Morgan found...
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Sanger, Margaret 1879-1966
BIRTH CONTROL REFORMER
A Father's Injunction.
Margaret Sanger almost single-handedly founded the birth control movement in America and was the driving force in the development of modern contraceptives. Her efforts to make birth control universally available to American women saved the lives of countless women by ending the nightmare of constant pregnancy that often burdened families with more children than they could support. Sanger was born as Margaret Louisa Higgins in Corning, New York, on 14 September 1879, the middle child in an Irish American family of eleven children. She often quoted her father, a sculptor of graveyard art and an avowed socialist, that the only obligation he expected of his children was to "leave the world a better place."
Maternity Ward Nurse.
While she nursed her tubercular mother, Sanger borrowed several medical books that fired her own ambition to become a physician. But Sanger could not afford medical school, so...
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Terman, Lewis Madison 1877-1956
PIONEER OF INTELLIGENCE TESTS
Lewis Madison Terman was an educational psychologist known for his long-term study of highly intelligent individuals. Born in Johnson County, Indiana, on 15 January 1877, Terman received his Ph.D. at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1905. (Clark University, under the leadership of psychologist G. Stanley Hall, was at that time a hotbed of American psychology.) Terman's thesis was based on his investigation of the differences between groups of bright and dull children on a wide range of tests. After graduating from Clark, Terman, who had tuberculosis, went west on the advice of his physician. He settled in California and joined the faculty of Stanford University in 1910, where he stayed until his retirement in 1942.
The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test.
In 1916 he revised the Binet-Simon intelligence test, which then became known as the Stanford-Binet test, and introduced the term intelligence quotient (IQ). Performance on the original Binet test, originated by the French psychologist Alfred Binet in 1905, was expressed on an age scale. A basal age was established by an individual's ability to pass an initial set of tests; additional months of credit were applied for tests passed above the basal age level. The result was a designation of...
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Vaughan, Victor Clarence 1851-1929
COMMUNICABLE DISEASE SPECIALIST IN WORLD WAR I
Scientist and Doctor.
Dr. Victor Clarence Vaughan played an important role in easing epidemics in military camps during World War I, a war in which more Americans succumbed to disease than to combat injuries. Vaughan was born in Mount Airy, Missouri, on 27 October 1851 and led an idyllic childhood on his parents' farm surrounded by horses and playmates. Four years of his childhood were spent in the middle of the Civil War, and Vaughan learned "to hate war and to love peace so dearly that I have been willing to do my small bit in fighting for it." He graduated from Mount Pleasant College, a Baptist school in Huntsville, Missouri, in 1872, learning Latin and teaching himself chemistry after finding the laboratory closed at the school. Vaughan nurtured his fascination with chemistry at the University of Michigan, receiving a Ph.D. and entering medical school in 1876, where he also began teaching chemistry. He received his M.D. in 1878 and continued doing postgraduate work under Robert Koch at the University of Berlin.
A Personal Interest.
In his middle years Dr. Vaughan turned to the study of communicable diseases, especially tuberculosis. He was personally familiar with communicable disease, having suffered from both tuberculosis and malaria as a young man. When he was...
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Wald, Lillian D. 1867-1940
PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE
A Baptism of Fire.
Lillian D. Wald is regarded as the founder of what is now called public health or community nursing, and she was known for her contributions to school nursing and child welfare. Wald was born to a wealthy family in Cincinnati, Ohio, and raised in Rochester, New York. Educated at Miss Crittenden's English and French Boarding and Day School for Young Ladies and Little Girls, she was encouraged by her physician relatives to become a nurse. She spent a year nursing at the New York Juvenile Asylum and then entered Woman's Medical College in New York. During medical school Wald was asked to go to New York's Lower East Side to instruct immigrant mothers on the care of the sick. Like Margaret Sanger, she was shocked by what she saw there. One day, as she was teaching a hygiene lesson in the slum, a little girl approached her for help. The child led her through filthy, crowded tenements to where her mother lay untended in a bed soiled with the hemorrhage of childbirth. Wald referred to that morning's experience as her "baptism of...
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Welch, William Henry 1850-1934
RESEARCHER AND EDUCATOR
A Family Tradition.
William Henry Welch, the early twentieth century's greatest statesman in the field of public health, was born on 8 April 1850 in Norwalk, Connecticut. His father, uncles, grandfather, and great-uncle had all been doctors, but Welch was reluctant to conform to the family tradition. He grew up as the child of a country practitioner, and there had been sick people in his house all day as well as raps on the door at night. When Welch received his A.B. degree from Yale College in 1870, nothing pointed toward a career either in science or medicine; his real enthusiasm was for the classics. After graduation he taught Cicero and German in an academy in Norwich, New York, but the job petered out in the spring of 1871, and Welch had to confront the problem of a career. He turned to medicine as the last resort of a man thwarted in his ambitions.
A New Kind of Medicine.
Welch's career would be in medical research, a new kind of medicine, with no precedent among his older physician relatives and not much precedent in medical history. One of a small group of students who finished college before entering medical school, Welch further prepared for medical school by working as his father's apprentice. After graduating from the College of Physicians and Surgeons (now part of...
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People in the News
John Jacob Abel isolated amino acids from blood by vividiffusion in 1913.
In 1911 John F. Anderson and Joseph Goldberger for the first time produced measles in an animal by injecting monkeys with cell-free blood filtrate from a human measles patient, suggesting that measles was a viral infection.
In 1910 John Auer demonstrated the bronchial spasm in acute anaphylaxis, and Samuel J. Meltzer suggested that this reaction characterized bronchial asthma.
Oswald T. Avery and Alphonse Dochez
described the specific soluble substance of pneumococcus in 1917.
S. R. Benedict devised a basal metabolism test in 1918.
Francis Gilman Blake and James Dowling Trask
demonstrated the viral origin of measles in 1919, In 1910 Washington University at Saint Louis president Robert Somers Brookings was inspired by the Flexner Report and began a program to elevate his university's medical school.
On 22 June 1914 A. G. Bryant and F. W. Duckering became the first women members of the American College of Surgeons.
In 1916 William T. Bull introduced antitoxin for treatment of gas gangrene.
Walter B. Cannon...
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NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS IN MEDICINE OR PHYSIOLOGY
Alexis Carrel (U.S.A., born in France) for his work in the transplantation and suturing of blood vessels.
THE EBERT PRIZE
The Ebert Prize is given for the best original paper published during the preceding year in the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. It was first awarded in 1874.
Harry M. Gordin
W. A. Puckner with L. E. Warren
E. N. Gathercoal
John Uri Lloyd
THE REMINGTON HONOR MEDAL
The Remington Honor Medal is given each year to the individual who has done the most for American pharmacy during the year or whose contributions to the advancement of pharmacy over a period of years have...
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Dudley Peter Allen, 63, professor of surgery at Western Reserve University, whose Wounds from Blank Cartridges (1903) resulted in the prohibition of the sale of blank cartridges in Cleveland, 6 January 1915.
David Alfred Amoss, 58, Rockefeller Institute physician noted for his work in organizing the tobacco growers of his Kentucky region into a tobacco trust, 3 November 1915.
William Henry Baker, 69, surgeon and professor of gynecology at Harvard Medical School who was known especially for his skill in plastic surgery and abdominal surgery, 26 November 1914.
Clara Barton, 82, founder of the American Red Cross, whose Civil War nursing earned her the name "Angel of the Battlefield" and set the standard for American nursing, 12 April 1912.
John Shaw Billings, 75, surgeon who served with the Army of the Potomac and was present at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, 11 March 1913.
Elizabeth Blackwell, 89, the first woman to obtain a medical degree from an American medical school and a founder of the New York Infirmary for Women and Children and the London School of Medicine for Women, 31 May 1910.
Emily Blackwell, 84, cofounder with sister Elizabeth Blackwell of the New York Infirmary for Women and Children that...
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J. J. Abel, L. G. Rowntree, and B. B. Turner, "On the Removal of Diffusible Substances from the Circulating Blood by Means of Dialysis' Transactions of the Association of American Physicians, 28 (1913): 51;
American Medical Association, Committee on Social Insurance, Statistics Regarding the Medical Profession (Chicago: American Medical Association, 1916);
Leonard P. Ayres, "What American Cities Are Doing for the Health of School Children," Annals, 37 (March 1911): 250-260;
M. T. Boardman, Under the Red Cross Flag at Home and Abroad, (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1915);
Lawrason Brown, Rules for Recovery from Pulmonary Tuberculosis, second edition (Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1916);
Thomas S. Carrington, Tuberculosis Hospital and Sanatorium Construction, third edition (New York: National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis, 1914);
Charles V. Chapin, How to Avoid Infection (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1917);
W. E. Dandy, "Ventriculography Following the Injection of Air into the Cerebral Ventricles," Annals of Surgery, 68 (1918): 5;
Michael M. Davis Jr., "Organization of Medical Service," American Labor Legislation Review, 6 (March 1916):...
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Important Events in Medicine and Health, 1910–1919
- The drug salvarsan comes into use against syphilis.
- The New York School of Chiropody opens in New York City.
- On January 15, the directory of the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission for hookworm prevention holds its first meeting.
- In March, the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Infant Mortality is formed, leading to the creation of baby clinics.
- In June, the American Medical Association's Council on Medical Education and Hospitals issues the Flexner Report on medical education, leading many inadequate medical schools to close and others to merge.
- In June, the University of Michigan awards the first American degree in public health.
- In September, the School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania establishes the nation's first medical research chair.
- In September, Columbia University offers the country's first course in optics and optometry.
- On October 3, the Ohio College of Dental Surgery in Cincinnati offers the first U.S. course for dental assistants and nurses.
- In November, the Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute opens.
- Measles is discovered to be a viral infection.
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