By: Lewis Hine
Source: "Lewis Hine Photographs for the National Child Labor Committee, ca. 1912." Record Group 102: Records of the Children's Bureau, 1908–1969. Still Picture Records LICON, Special Media Archives Services Division (NWCS-S), National Archives at College Park, MD. Available online at ; website home page: http://www.nara.gov (accessed October 11, 2002).
About the Author: Lewis Wickes Hine (1874–1940) was born in Wisconsin but moved to New York City to teach at the turn of the century. Within the next few years, he became closely associated with several reform organizations, especially the National Child Labor Committee (NCLC), and began to take some of his most influential photographs. These pictures depicted the human impact of industrialization. He took his most famous and significant pictures of child laborers in textile mills, mines, factories, and farms. During the Great Depression, he undertook projects for various New Deal agencies.
The first two decades of the twentieth century brought a growing concern about the impact of industrialization and massive immigration in the United States. Progressives focused their energies on reforming the...
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National American Woman Suffrage Association Broadsides
"Votes for Women"; "Why Women Want to Vote"; "Women in the Home"
By: National American Woman Suffrage Association
Date: 1910, 1912
Source: National American Woman Suffrage Association Broadsides. American Memory. An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera. Available online at http://memory.loc.gov/ (accessed April 10, 2003).
About the Organization: From its founding in 1890 until ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) led the campaign for women's suffrage in the United States. The organization formed through the merger of two competing groups: the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) and the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA). This coalition featured several of the most influential women's rights advocates in American history, including Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Lucy Stone. Following the victory in 1920, the NAWSA restructured its objectives to focus on ongoing political issues relating to women. The group changed its name to the League of Women Voters, which would continue to campaign for policies beneficial to women for the rest of the twentieth...
(The entire section is 881 words.)
Early Baseball Cards
"Chicago Cubs Baseball Card"; "Tris Speaker Baseball Card"; "Cy Young Baseball Card"
By: Liggett & Myers Co.; American Tobacco Company
Date: 1913; 1911; 1911
Source: "Chicago Cubs Baseball Card"; "Tris Speaker Baseball Card"; "Cy Young Baseball Card". American Memory: Historical Collections for the National Digital Library. "Baseball Cards, 1887–1914." Available online at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/bbhtml/bbhome.html; website home page: http://www.memory.loc.gov (accessed April 9, 2003).
About the Organization: The American Tobacco Company (ATC) was formed in 1890 when five of the nation's largest cigarette producers merged. North Carolina industrialist James Buchanan Duke headed ATC and used his revamped cigarette-rolling machine to take virtually complete control of the tobacco industry in the United States. As the Progressive movement ushered in a wave of antimonopoly reforms, the U.S. Justice Department concentrated its efforts on breaking up ATC in the 1900s. In 1911, the corporation dissolved. Duke cut his losses and moved from tobacco production to philanthropy. Shortly before his death in 1925, he agreed to contribute more than $100...
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"Fun's Word Cross Puzzle"
By: Arthur Wynne
Date: December 21, 1913
Source: Wynne, Arthur. "Fun's Word Cross Puzzle," World (New York), December 21, 1913. Available online at http://www.crosswordtournament.com/more/wynne.html; website home page: http://www.crosswordtournament.com (accessed April 9, 2003).
About the Author: Arthur Wynne, molding existing word game and puzzle styles, created the newspaper crossword
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The Woman Rebel
By: Margaret Sanger
Date: March 1914
Source: Sanger, Margaret. The Woman Rebel, vol. 1, no. 1. In Katz, Esther, Cathy Moran Hajo, and Peter Engelman, eds. The Margaret Sanger Papers Electronic Edition: Margaret Sanger and "The Woman Rebel," 1914–1916. Columbia, S.C.: Model Editions Partnership, 1999. Available online at (accessed April 9, 2003).
About the Author: Margaret Sanger (1883–1966), born Margaret Higgins, was the sixth of eleven children born to Irish Catholic parents in Corning, New York. She attended Claverack College and Hudson River Institute before entering the White Plains Hospital nursing program. She married architect William Sanger, with whom she had three children. In 1910, the Sangers moved to New York City. When William gave up architecture for a career as an artist, Margaret used her nursing skills to help support the family. She saw firsthand the tribulations, risk, and mortality of frequent pregnancies, miscarriages, and back-alley abortions—and was reminded of her own mother's suffering. She devoted the rest of her life to the legalization of birth control in the United States.
The 1910s saw enormous struggles for women's rights in the United States. At the beginning of...
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The First Pulitzer Prizes
By: New York Tribune
Date: May 7, 1916
Source: "The Anniversary." New York Tribune, May 7, 1916.
"Germany Keen for Peace, but
Expects and is Ready to Battle for
By: Herbert Bayard Swope
Source: Swope, Herbert Bayard. "Germany Keen for Peace, but Expects and Is Ready to Battle for Years," New York World, November 4, 1916. Reprinted in Swope, Herbert Bayard. Inside the German Empire: 1916. New York: Century, 1917.
The Pulitzer Prize originated with Joseph Pulitzer (1847–1911) who was born in Hungary and is perhaps the most influential journalist in American history. His brand of newspaper publishing, dubbed "yellow journalism," first gained appeal during his ownership of St. Louis Post-Dispatch and later the New York World. His style offered readers titillating accounts of trials, trysts, and tragedy, but its foundation rested in investigative reporting and sharp editorials that advocated social, political, and economic reform. Before his death,...
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"Warning: The Deadly Parallel"
By: Industrial Workers of the World
Source: Industrial Workers of the World. "Warning: The Deadly Parallel." Special Collections AZ 114, box 1, folder 1, exhibit 2. Available online at ; website home page: http://digital.library.arizona.edu (accessed April 10, 2003).
About the Organization: The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) formed in 1905 in opposition to the American Federation of Labor. Throughout its tumultuous history, the IWW agitated for a worldwide revolution against capitalism. The group's rallying cry called for the creation of "One Big Union," incorporating the working classes from every corner of the globe. The IWW believed that an international worker coalition could institute a strike and overthrow the existing class hierarchy. The organization argued that workers should control the product of their labor, rather than higher profits going to middle-and upper-class businessmen. Government prosecution during World War I decimated the IWW, and the group never again reached its prewar membership levels of over 100,000.
Few expected the assassination of the heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire to engulf Europe in war. Yet this...
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Letters to the Chicago Defender
By: Chicago Defender
Source: Chicago Defender. "Letters of Negro Migrants of 1916–1918." Journal of Negro History 4, no. 3, 1919, 291, 293. "Additional Letters of Negro Migrants of 1916–1918." Journal of Negro History 4, no. 4, 1919, 412–413, 418, 420, 442–443, 457–460. Available online at ; website home page: http://www.azimuth.harcourtcollege.com (accessed April 9, 2003).
About the Publication: The Chicago Defender, founded by Robert S. Abbott in 1905, was a conduit for African American social change through much of its history. By World War I, the weekly paper was the most widely read source of information for African Americans in all regions of the country. It actively promoted the Great Migration of African Americans away from the South during the 1910s and 1920s, playing a pivotal role in the movement of well over one and a half million people. Author Langston Hughes and others contributed to the publication and aided its calls for economic and political justice. Becoming a daily paper in 1956, the Defender continues to advocate progress for African Americans.
As the nation entered the Great...
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"For Freedom and Democracy"
By: North American Review
Date: March 30, 1917
Source: "For Freedom and Democracy." North American Review, March 30, 1917, 482–488. Available online at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4939 (accessed April 10, 2003).
About the Publication: The North American Review is one of the oldest published journals in American history. First published in 1815 in Boston, it ran continuously until 1940, evolving from a focus on literature to a stronger concentration on current events from a distinctly American perspective. Following a lengthy hiatus, the publication restarted in Iowa in 1964 and has been published continuously since.
With the assassination of the heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1914, Europe soon became engulfed in the Great War. Russia, Great Britain, and France were the allies, opposed by the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire (modern-day Turkey). Although President Woodrow Wilson campaigned successfully to keep the United States out of the war through the end of 1916, his views toward the conflict shifted significantly. The sinking of the British passenger liner Lusitania in May...
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Sedition Act, 1918
By: Woodrow Wilson
Date: May 16, 1918
Source: Wilson, Woodrow. Sedition Act, 1918. United States Statutes at Large, vol. 40, April 1917–March 1919. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1919, 553–554. Available online at ; website home page: http://www.azimuth.harcourtcollege.com (accessed April 9, 2003). About the Author: Woodrow Wilson (1856–1924), the twenty-eighth president of the United States and former president of Princeton University, was drafted as head of the Democratic ticket in 1912 and won against a split Republican Party with just over 40 percent of the vote. Progressive legislation at home, the Great War abroad, and the Versailles peace treaty shaped Wilson's presidency. Wilson won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919.
President Woodrow Wilson campaigned for reelection in 1916 on the slogan "He Kept Us Out of the War"—that is, he had successfully prevented America's entrance into World War I (1914–18). His certitude about the war, though, had begun to waver with the sinking of the British passenger ship Lusitania in May 1915 and discovery of the infamous Zimmerman Telegram in January 1917. The German submarine attack on the Lusitania...
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Chicago Race Riots
"A Crowd of Howling Negroes"
By: Chicago Tribune
Date: July 28, 1919
Source: "A Crowd of Howling Negroes." Chicago Daily Tribune, July 28, 1919. Available online at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4975 (accessed April 9, 2003).
About the Publicaton: The Chicago Daily Tribune began publication in 1847 and established itself by the turn of the century as the Midwest's most influential daily newspaper. At the time of the Chicago race riots in July 1919, cousins Robert R. McCormick and Joseph Medill Patterson were the paper's copublishers. McCormick's influence proved critical to the paper's opposition to liberalism. In June 1919, Patterson started the nation's first tabloid-style paper, the New York Illustrated Daily News, which reached a circulation of over one million by the mid-1920s.
"Ghastly Deeds of Race Rioters
By: Chicago Defender
Date: August 2, 1919
Source: "Ghastly Deeds of Race Rioters Told," Chicago Defender, August 2, 1919. Available online at
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The Brass Check
By: Upton Sinclair
Source: Sinclair, Upton. The Brass Check: A Study of American Journalism. Pasadena, Calif.: Author, 1919, 436–439, 440–440, 443.
About the Author: Upton Sinclair (1878–1968) entered City College of New York in 1892. After joining the Socialist Party a decade later, he embarked upon a career in muckraking journalism and leftist political activism. His most famous exposé, The Jungle (1905), investigated the meat-packing industry in Chicago and aided the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat-Inspection Act of 1906. He continued to investigate corruption in business and government for the next several decades. In 1934, he lost a campaign for the governorship of California but received more than 40 percent of the vote. He wrote more than two thousand published works and established himself as the quintessential radical activist/journalist.
Upton Sinclair wrote The Brass Check as an investigative report on the downfall of the press. Following the heyday of muckraking, activist journalism in the 1900s, Sinclair saw the 1910s as a period of decline for journalism as a public service. American society exited the 1910s, according to Sinclair, "passing...
(The entire section is 2498 words.)