Topics in the News
The American Newspaper
Muckraking Comes Home.
Between 1903 and 1910 muckraking magazines had exposed corruption in American government and business with great fervor and to great acclaim. The magazine publisher Robert J. Collier began to wonder why the newspapers in American cities had not unearthed those stories. He asked Will Irwin, a veteran reporter for the New York Sun and former McClure's magazine editor, to investigate the American newspaper industry. Irwin spent a year traveling around the country interviewing publishers, editors, reporters, and readers. He found that while some newspapers held to strict professional codes of independence and courage, others shaped their news coverage to the tastes and beliefs of their advertisers or their owners. His fourteen-part series, published in 1911 in Collier's as "The American Newspaper," was far more than an exposé; it was a major history of American journalism.
A Varied Industry.
Observing that the power of the press had clearly shifted from owners to editors in the twentieth century, Irwin looked at how editors selected the news. There was no standard method of selection or even a shared sense of the role of the newspaper in society. Oswald Garrison Villard, editor of the New York Evening Post and The Nation, felt a moral obligation to improve the world. Adolph S. Ochs...
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The Antiwar Press
A Variety of Resistere.
Though the "war to end all wars" and the "war to make the world safe for democracy"—were the official slogans of the war effort, not everyone in the United States believed that World War I would accomplish these noble goals. Isolationists believed that the United States had no business meddling in the problems of Europe. Religious pacifists opposed any war on moral grounds. Black Americans found it hypocritical to fight for a cause abroad that served them badly at home. Immigrants from Germany and Austria were torn between support for their ancestral homes and loyalty to their new one. Socialists believed the war only furthered imperial and capitalistic ambitions. The struggles of all of these groups found expression in their newspapers and magazines. For their opposition to the war, some suffered persecution and prosecution under the 1917 Espionage Act and the 1918 Sedition Act.
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Censorship at the Front
In the years when the United States remained officially neutral, the British, French, German, and Austrian governments rarely allowed their own reporters, let alone those representing neutral countries, to travel with their armies. It was difficult for writers to get access to the front or to get their stories past the official censors. Ernest Hemingway wrote, "The last war, during the years of 1915, 1916, 1917 was the most colossal, murderous, mismanaged butchery that has ever taken place on earth. Any writer who said otherwise lied. So the writers either wrote propaganda, shut up, or fought."
Winners Are More Accommodating.
The European belligerents worked hard to seduce reporters into writing favorable stories and to prevent them from writing unfavorable ones. At first the German army prevailed on the Western Front; while it did it allowed neutral reporters to observe battles and let them write what they wanted. The Austrians provided each correspondent with a...
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The Creel Committee
The Committee on Public Information.
In March 1917, when United States entry into the war seemed inevitable (the declaration came one month later), rumors circulated in Washington that military leaders were again advocating censorship of the press. Beginning in June 1916 President Woodrow Wilson's attorney general, Thomas Gregory, had pushed for measures to punish members of the press found guilty of espionage and strictly limit freedom of the press and of speech. He tried again in February 1917, but on each occasion Congress balked. The administration tried again following the declaration of war and found the mood in Congress much more receptive. Newspaperman, muckraker, and Wilson adviser George Creel sent the president a memo urging a voluntary agreement with the press to control information rather than the institution of formal censorship. Wilson agreed and created the Committee on Public Information (CPI), with Creel as its chairman. The other members of the committee would be the secretaries of war, state, and the navy, who had themselves suggested such a committee to the president on 13 April 1917, writing that Americans ought to be "given the feeling of partisanship that comes with full, frank statements concerning the conduct of the public business." Given Creel's background as a crusader and his fiery temperament, many observers felt that putting him in charge of rallying public...
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The First American Tabloid
Born of a Family Split.
The New York Illustrated Daily News made its debut on 26 June 1919. Two grandsons of Chicago Tribune founder Joseph Medill served as copublishers of their family paper, and both served in World War I. Col. Robert R. McCormick was as conservative as his grandfather, but Capt. Joseph Medill Patterson had imbibed the reform spirit of the early twentieth century. As a young man he had enrolled at Yale University but took time off to become a Tribune correspondent in China, where he covered the Boxer Rebellion. After graduating from Yale in 1901, he defended the rights of the common people against political corruption in his reporting and won election to the Illinois legislature. His politics never meshed with those of the conservative paper, and he left the daily to write socially minded novels and plays. Before the United States entered World War I he became a European correspondent for the paper, and he joined the military when Congress declared war.
Lord Northcliffe Recommends.
In 1903 the British public saw its first tabloid paper, the Daily Mirror. The paper began as a publication for women but soon changed into a "half penny illustrated," printed on paper half the size of a regular newspaper and full of pictures and sensational crime and sex stories. By 1909 its circulation reached...
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The Hindenburg Confession
A Solemn Pledge.
On Armistice Day four reporters who had witnessed the horrors and brutality of the war shook hands and pledged that they would spend the rest of their lives writing the truth about the war so that the bloodshed would never be repeated. The millions of soldiers and civilians dead from combat and disease, the unprecedented pain and suffering—each man felt he would give his life to prevent such massive injustice from happening again. The four reporters were Herbert Corey, George Seldes, Lincoln Eyre, and Cal Lyon.
And So Much for Military Discipline.
At the same time, the four young men decided that the rules of military discipline no longer applied to newspaper correspondents. They decided to drive into Germany to observe conditions and to try to interview Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg, the (former) commander of the German army. They drove through France into Germany and soon came upon the German army in full retreat. The soldiers were frightened and surprised to...
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The Most Hated Man in America
William Randolph Hearst, the larger-than-life publisher of the New York American, the San Francisco Examiner, and many other major papers and magazines, opposed U.S. entry into World War I, both before and after it occurred. Hearst was no pacifist, as his enthusiasm for the war against Spain in 1898 had demonstrated. But from the beginning of war in 1914, and through the three years of official American neutrality, he and his papers argued that it was Europe's war, that the Allies would lose, and that there was no sense getting involved and sacrificing American lives. He was called anti-British (true), pro-German (false), and the most hated man in the country. His publications lost circulation, advertising revenue, and respect. Hearst was burned in effigy, not for the first or last time.
Hearst disliked the English for several reasons. His wife was Irish American, and he thus supported Ireland's resistance to British rule. Also, he had sympathy for all peoples fighting for their freedom. Hearst detested President Woodrow Wilson, who was a confirmed Anglophile and whose ostensibly neutral policies slid closer and closer to the Allies between 1914 and 1917. He objected to the loans made by American banks to the British, in effect wagering the health of the American economy on the victory of the...
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The New Republic
Herbert Croly's Insurrections.
In 1909 a young intellectual, the son of two newspaper writers, published an influential political polemic titled The Promise of American Life. Herbert Croly argued that while the laissez-faire philosophy of keeping government out of the market-place held great appeal for a small-scale society, the advent of big business meant that a strong central government was needed to protect the weak. And to avoid being overtaken by special interests, government required strong leadership. Theodore Roosevelt became an early convert to Croly's "New Nationalism." Croly is also credited with inspiring Woodrow Wilson's "New Freedom." Though painfully shy, Croly, along with some like-minded colleagues, determined to start a magazine, a "journal of opinion" that would start "little insurrections" in the minds of its readers.
A Straight Fortune.
Willard and Dorothy Straight became Croly's financial backers. Dorothy was a Whitney by birth and received royalties from Standard Oil. Willard was a Morgan banker who had served as a consul in China and believed in American internationalism. After reading Croly's book, the Straights decided that rather than giving money to schools or hospitals, they wanted to fund a magazine to disseminate Croly's views. The Straights purchased a townhouse in New York to house the magazine,...
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A New World of Books
As the mass market for books continued to grow in the second decade of the twentieth century, old-fashioned publishers lamented that the quality of the writing and the paper on which it was printed were both declining. Literary merit certainly brought some books to light, but salability became the paramount concern for the modernizing publishing business. To fill an established marketing niche, publishers went to established writers with plans and formulas for projected books rather than waiting to choose among completed manuscripts. The biggest problem facing the industry was distribution. Even the biggest houses employed no more than four salesmen, with territories such as all the major cities east of the Mississippi, or the entire South, or, in one busy fellow's case, New England, part of the Midwest, and the Pacific Coast. In 1914 there were 3,501 bookstores in the country to call on, statistically one for every twenty-eight thousand people, but these were concentrated in cities and large towns. The rural population was woefully underserved. Before World War I, 90 percent of all books were sold by subscription salesmen, who traveled door to door, with the rest sold by direct mail.
The Next Generation.
While in 1911 the older generation of publishers began a Publishers' Lunch Club that met on the first Thursday of each...
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The Radio Music Box
A young immigrant from Russia named David Sarnoff spent the thirteen years from 1906 to 1919 working for the American branch of the Marconi Wireless Company. As one of the company's most skilled telegraph operators, he often forwarded memos with suggestions for company operations to E. J. Nally, the vice president and general manager. In November 1916 Sarnoff wrote a memo to Nally on the subject of the "Radio Music Box." None of the Marconi executives who read it gave it a second thought, and if they did it was to consider Sarnoff a screwball. But the memo foretold the future of the radio industry at a time when the technology was still used exclusively as a means for point-to-point communication. While radio pioneer Lee De Forest was already transmitting music from a phonograph from his home in the Bronx, his audience was made up of those who already had receivers. It would be left to others, including Sarnoff, to induce the public to buy radio receivers in great numbers.
Sarnoff proposed to develop radio as a "household utility" along the lines of a piano or a phonograph. "The idea is to bring music into the home by wireless," he wrote. While similar plans using wires had failed, Sarnoff proposed that a transmitter with a range of twenty-five to fifty miles could be installed in a central place, where...
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The "Smart Magazines"
From Society and Comedy.
A new class of magazines began to publish during the 1910s, which writer George Douglas has dubbed the "Smart Magazines." The principal examples from this era were The Smart Set and Vanity Fair. Later additions to the fold included The New Yorker and Esquire. They grew out of two separate strains in magazine publishing: the urban society journal and the humor magazine. Urban society journals published news about the "Four Hundred" high-society families, their parties and charities, their debutantes, weddings, and travels. Humor magazines such as Life (not to be confused with a later publication by that name), Punchy and Judge published satire, cartoons, and comedic fiction. The "Smart Magazines" catered to an elite audience but set out to amuse, entertain, and provoke, to be the fodder of conversation at parties.
Vogue publisher Condé Nast bought two dying society journals in 1913, Dress and Vanity Fair. He originally combined the two as Dress and Vanity Fair, but when he hired Frank Crowninshield as editor, Crowninshield immediately dropped the first part of the name. Crowninshield was a dapper man-about-town who knew so many prominent people in the arts and belonged to so many society clubs that the magazine...
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Stars and Stripes
The nearly two million soldiers of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) frequently complained that they could get no reliable news from home. The Paris editions of the New York Herald and the Chicago Tribune printed society news rather than sports scores. AEF leaders saw an opportunity to disseminate information about military decorum and orders. Once it was determined that the costs of printing an eight-page weekly could be covered by selling subscriptions and advertising, the AEF began to publish its own newspaper, the Stars and Stripes, on 8 February 1918. It ran through June 1919, for seventy-one weeks, and eventually reached a circulation of more than one hundred thousand. Its staff swelled to more than three hundred.
Civilians in Uniform.
The newspaper's foremost writers were journalists in civilian life and conducted the paper's business as ordinarily as possible. Harold Ross, who would later become the longtime editor of The New
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The Titanic and the Radio Act of 1912
On 10 April 1912 one of the largest and most luxurious ocean liners ever built sailed for New York from England. Full of prominent people whose pictures filled the newspapers in stories of this maiden voyage, the Titanic represented all the arrogance of technology and wealth. The captain, believing his ship impervious to the dangers of nature, sped through an ice field, an ice field through which other ships would have proceeded with extreme caution. On 15 April the Titanic struck an iceberg and began taking on water.
Jack Phillips, one of the wireless operators on the Titanic, immediately began broadcasting distress signals and the ship's position. Tragically, most ships, including those closest to the Titanic, employed only one operator; when that man was away from his station, no one monitored the wireless. By sheer coincidence, Harold Cottam, the operator of the Carpathia, had returned to his station to complete a "time rush" (in which two ships check the agreement of their clocks). The Carpathia was fifty-eight miles away, and it took three and a half hours to get to the site of the disaster, by which time the Titanic was gone. The Carpathia rescued seven hundred people, mostly women and children, who had made it into the insufficient number of...
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Chase, Edna Woolman and Nast, Condé 1877-1957/1873-1942
EDITOR OF VOGUE/PUBLISHER OF VOGUE
Attracting the Gold Tips.
Born in New York to parents whose social standing exceeded their accomplishments, the fastidious young Condé Nast attracted the notice of a wealthy aunt who put him through George-town University. As advertising manager for his friend Robert Collier's weekly Collier's, Nast pioneered several business strategies. He believed that advertisers would pay premium rates for the most affluent readership. He explained his approach with a metaphor of 2 million needles, only 150,000 of which had gold tips. Rather than searching through the pile, he proposed it would be more efficient to devise a magnet for gold. Just so with elite society publications, he concluded. In 1909 he purchased the small society gazette called Vogue, whose ad manager was already attempting to turn it into a fashion magazine and shopping guide in order to lure lucrative fashion ads. Here was his gold magnet. Readers were at least as interested in the ads as in any copy in the magazine. Vogue has since maintained a symbiotic relationship with its advertisers, highlighting their products in its features....
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Cobb, Frank I. 1869-1923
A Handpicked Successor.
In 1904 Joseph Pulitzer, legendary publisher of the New York World and the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, surveyed his editorial staff. While John Heaton, William H. Merrill, Horatio Seymour, and Pulitzer's own son Ralph were all able men, the publisher wanted to find someone more like himself: a leader, a bold writer, and someone with deep knowledge of American history. He sent his personal secretary Samuel M. Williams on a nationwide hunt. In Detroit the editorials of the Free Press caught Williams's eye. They were clear and concise. He found that they were written by Frank Cobb, a man still in his early thirties. Over a series of lunches Williams quizzed Cobb on his knowledge of history and government and his views on journalism, and he assessed everything from his temperament to his table manners. Williams reported to Pulitzer that he had found his man. Born in rural Kansas and a veteran of Michigan sawmills and lumber camps before his twentieth birthday, Cobb had gone to Michigan State Normal School while supporting his wife and son. At twenty-one he was made superintendent of the high school at Martin, Michigan. He soon found work at the Detroit Evening News and then the Free Press. It took some persuading by Williams, but Cobb moved his family to New York City, unaware of Pulitzer's plans for him....
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Davis, Richard Harding 1864-1916
When World War I erupted in 1914, Richard Harding Davis was America's preeminent war correspondent. The son of an editor of the Philadelphia Public Ledger and the well-known writer Rebecca Blaine Harding Davis, Richard went to Lehigh University where he became a star half-back but neglected his studies. Asked to leave, he became a journalist. He had covered Cuban attempts to gain independence from Spain for two years before the United States intervened in 1898. His articles for the Hearst press, including the graphic "The Death of Rodriguez"—describing the execution by firing squad of a captured rebel—strengthened American opinion to come to the aid of the Cubans. Davis's good looks and personal flamboyance contributed in large measure to the romantic image of the war correspondent. H. L. Mencken called him the "hero of our dreams." In addition to the Spanish-American War, he covered the Boer War, the Russo-Japanese War, and the Mexican Revolution.
Out of Retirement.
By 1914 Davis had retired to his home in Mount Kisco, New York, to write plays and stories, when...
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Dorr, Rheta Childe 1868-1948
As a child in Nebraska, Rheta Childe routinely disobeyed her parents. At age twelve she sneaked out of the house to attend a women's rights rally led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. Her parents found out when the newspaper printed the names of those who had joined the National Woman Suffrage Association. She began working at the age of fifteen, over the objections of her parents, so that she could become independent and prove her industry. She was conservative by nature but became a rebel upon viewing a tombstone inscribed "Also Harriet, wife of the above."
In 1890 Childe went to New York City to study at the Art Students' League and decided that she would become a writer. When John Pixley Dorr, a man twenty years older than she, visited from Lincoln, they fell in love and were soon married. She was swept away by his good looks and love of books. They lived in Seattle for two years, where their son Julian was born. Rheta wrote articles for the New York newspapers, which her husband found an unacceptable activity. They soon parted by mutual consent, and Rheta returned to New York with their young son, determined to make a living as a journalist.
Cads and Editors.
Dorr was shocked at how she was...
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Herriman, George 1880-1944
COMIC STRIP ARTIST
One of the Greats.
Born to French-Creole parents in New Orleans, George Herriman grew up in the rich culture of the southern bayous. A lifelong animal lover and vegetarian, his comic strips usually featured talking animals. He began cartooning in 1901, and when "Krazy Kat" became an independent strip in 1913, he created one of the most enduring characters of the century. Herriman was the most celebrated, and in many people's minds the greatest, comic strip artist of his time.
Herriman's characters often went on quixotic crusades, following their plans at the expense and ruin of everyone around them. From 1904 to 1910 he drew a strip for the New World called "Major Ozone's Fresh Air Crusade." In 1909 and 1910 he played with another called "Gooseberry Sprig." It featured talking animals, off-center plots, and barely sketched settings. In 1910 he began drawing "The Dingbat Family" for the New York Evening Journal. It included a substrip or parallel story that unfolded along the bottom with smaller characters making comic commentary. Krazy Kat began in the substrip of "The Dingbat Family."
A Wise Fool.
The Kat spoke in obtuse near nonsense. He turned imbecillc phrases based on his own skewed logic. His nemesis was usually...
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Reed, John 1887-1920
Busy at Harvard, and After.
Born in Portland, Oregon, in 1887, John Reed entered Harvard University with the illustrious class of 1910 that included Walter Lippmann and T. S. Eliot. He studied writing and found time to write for the Lampoon, help edit the literary Monthly, captain the water polo team, sing in the glee club, and write lyrics for Hasty Pudding theatricals. After graduation he traveled to Europe, settled among a bohemian circle in New York's Greenwich Village, and wrote for the muckraking American Magazine and for the radical Masses after its founding in 1911.
The Stories of Workers and Peasants.
Reed wrote with great passion about domestic social problems. His moving account of a strike by twenty thousand textile workers in Paterson, New Jersey, attracted widespread attention. In 1913 Metropolitan magazine sent him to Mexico to cover Pancho Villa's peasant revolution against the dictator Victoriano Huerta. When he found Villa's forces in the mountains of Chihuahua, Reed...
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Van Anda, Carr 1864-1945
An Unknown Force.
As a child in Wapakoneta and Georgetown, Ohio, Carr Vattel Van Anda showed equal enthusiasm for mechanical tinkering and publishing. At age ten he built his own printing press and published his Boy's Gazette, and he spent his profits on chemistry and physics experiments. He went to college at age sixteen and worked as a typesetter and reporter. In 1904, after fifteen years as a reporter and editor for the New York Sun, Van Anda became managing editor of The New York Times, He worked twelve hours a day, seven days a week, and hardly took a day off for the twenty-one years he held that position. Van Anda's genius in selecting news and finding ways to get information quickly, as well as his remarkable intelligence, set standards for news gathering. While reporters respected him for his fairness, his disapproving glance was known as the "death ray." It was Van Anda, perhaps even more than the paper's publisher, Adolph Ochs, who made the Times into the newspaper of record for the twentieth century. As he shunned all personal publicity, he remains less celebrated than his accomplishments warrant.
First on the Titanic.
In 1912 the Times received an Associated Press bulletin the day before the Titanic was due to reach New York on its maiden voyage....
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Villard, Oswald Garrison 1872-1949
Family Fame and Fortune.
As the grandson of abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison and the son of Civil War correspondent, publisher, and railroad magnate Henry Villard, Oswald Garrison Villard inherited both crusading liberal views and the means to promote them. He was born in Wiesbaden, Germany, and educated in private schools in New York. After earning undergraduate and graduate degrees from Harvard in 1893 and 1896 respectively, he became a newspaper reporter and then took over as the editor of his father's New York Evening Post. He was dedicated to the advancement of blacks, equal rights for women, birth control, prison reform, and civil liberties. He opposed American entry into both world wars.
Unsettling New York.
Villard's greatest exposé occurred in 1910, when his investigation of the New York State legislature president and Republican majority leader, Jotham P. Allds, uncovered rampant graft. It led to the first graft conviction of a New York legislator. In 1911 Villard was one of a handful of men to join in the first woman suffrage parade in New York City, and he gleefully suffered jeers from members of his own University Club as the parade passed under its windows. Villard supported Woodrow Wilson for president in 1912 but withdrew his support when the new administration mandated...
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People in the News
In 1914 a beautiful, eager, and arrogant young woman from the backwoods of Indiana founded the Little Review. Margaret Anderson made it into one of the most influential literary journals of the first decades of the twentieth century.
While he would receive greater notoriety with his liberal column "It Seems to Me" and as an organizer of the American Newspaper Guild in the 1920s and 1930s, Heywood Broun reported World War I for the New York Tribune and found innovative ways to get around military censorship. In December 1917 he exposed inferior supply operations for the American Expeditionary Forces in France that endangered the troops, and his paper was fined $10,000 by the War Department.
James Middleton Cox, publisher of the Dayton Daily News, was elected governor of Ohio in 1912. He had bought the paper with help from his boss, Congressman Paul J. Sorg, in 1898 and began his political career in 1908 when he was elected to Congress as a Democrat. He failed to win reelection as governor in 1914 but won again in 1916 and 1918. He gained the Democratic nomination for president in 1920, with Franklin Delano Roosevelt as his running mate.
W. E. B. DuBois was named the first editor of The Crisis, the monthly magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, for...
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PULITZER PRIZES FOR JOURNALISM (FIRST AWARDED IN 1917)
Editorial Writing: New York Tribune
Reporting: Herbert Bayard Swope, New York World
Meritorious Public Service: The New York Times
Reporting: Harold A. Littledale, New York Evening Post
Newspaper History Award: Minna Lewinson and Henry Battle Hough
Meritorious Public Service: Lucius W. Nieman, Milwaukee Journal
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Henry Mills Alden, 82, personally all but unknown but influential editor of Harper's Monthly, 1869-1919, 7 October 1919.
James Gordon Bennett Jr., editor and publisher of the New York Herald and sports patron, 14 May 1918.
Ambrose Bierce, 72, caustic columnist for Hearst newspapers and popular writer of short stories; known as "Bitter Bierce"; he disappeared on 11 January 1914.
Randolph Bourne, 32, well-respected contributor to the New Republic and the Seven Arts, 23 December 1918.
Samuel Bowles IV, 63, editor and publisher for four decades of the Springfield (Mass.) Republican, 16 March 1915.
Henry Richardson Chamberlain, 52, London correspondent for the New York Sun from 1892 to 1911 who predicted that a Balkan conflict would ensnare Europe in a general war, 15 February 1911.
Samuel S. Chamberlain, 65, editor and publisher with Hearst who played a key role in revitalizing the San Francisco Examiner, the New York American, and the Boston American; he also served as editor of Cosmopolitan, 25 January 1916.
Robert J. Collier, 41, editor and publisher of Collier's and the National Weekly and president of P. F....
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Samuel G. Blythe, The Making of a Newspaperman (Philadelphia: Altemus, 1912);
Grant Milnor Hyde, Newspaper Reporting and Correspondence (New York: Appleton, 1916);
John Reed, Insurgent Mexico (New York: Appleton, 1914);
Reed, Ten Days That Shook the World (New York: Boni & Liveright, 1919);
Reed, The War in Eastern Europe (New York: Scribners, 1916);
Charles G. Ross, The Writing of News: A Handbook (New York: Holt, 1911);
Merle Thorpe, ed., The Coming Newspaper (New York: Holt, 1915);
Walter Williams and Frank L. Martin, The Practice of Journalism: A Treatise on Newspaper Making (Columbia, Mo.: E. W. Stephens, 1911);
Chicago Day Book, periodical;
The Crisis, periodical;
The Liberator, periodical;
The Little Review, periodical;
The Masses, periodical;
Miami Herald, periodical;
Milwaukee Leader, periodical;
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Important Events in Media, 1910–1919
- Robert R. McCormick, known after World War I as the Colonel, becomes editor and publisher of the Chicago Tribune, turning it into the most consistently ultraconservative paper for the next several decades.
- Oswald Garrison Villard, at work as a reporter for his father's New York Evening Post, investigates the Republican majority leader of the New York state legislature. His exposés lead to the first conviction of a legislator for graft in New York history.
- Rheta Childe Dorr publishes What Eight Million Women Want, an account of the suffrage movements in Great Britain and the United States.
- On March 10, the Pittsburgh Courier begins publication.
- On June 18, Congress gives the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) regulatory authority over the nation's telephone, telegraph, cable, and wireless communications companies. The move is applauded by those industries, which feared the development of a wide variety of regulations by individual states.
- On July 13, the first issue of Women's Wear Daily appears, under the editorship of journalist Edmund Fairchild.
- On October 1, a bomb explodes at the offices of the Los Angeles Times, killing twenty. Two union leaders, John and James McNamara, later confess to planting the...
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