By: Theodore Roosevelt
Date: August 31, 1910
Source: Roosevelt, Theodore. "The New Nationalism." The Program in Presidential Rhetoric Speech Archive. Available online at ; website home page: http://www.tamu.edu (accessed January 18, 2003).
About the Author: Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919) was born in New York City, the seventh-generation Roosevelt to be born in Manhattan. He was a sickly child, suffering from chronic asthma, but he exhibited an iron-willed determination to lead "the Strenuous Life." A graduate of Harvard, he was an accomplished historian, boxer, cowboy, war hero, sportsman, reformer, and two-term president (served 1901–1909).
In 1901, following the death of William McKinley (served 1897–1901) by an anarchist's bullet, Theodore Roosevelt became the youngest president in the nation's history. Roosevelt believed that his handpicked successor, William Howard Taft (served 1909–1913), would continue his progressive policies. At the Republican convention in 1908, though, Roosevelt almost decided to run for another term. On the second day of the convention, an impromptu and disorderly forty-nine-minute demonstration supporting Roosevelt erupted. When Roosevelt finally...
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"Henry Cabot Lodge: Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine"
By: Henry Cabot Lodge Sr.
Date: August 2, 1912
Source: Lodge, Henry Cabot, Sr. "Henry Cabot Lodge: Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine." Congressional Record, 62nd Cong., 2d sess., 1912, 10045.
About the Author: Henry Cabot Lodge Sr. (1850–1924) was born in Boston, Massachusetts. He graduated from Harvard with a law degree and was the first Harvard student to earn a Ph.D. in political science. He was a prolific writer of historical, biographical, and political works. In 1884, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1893, he graduated to the Senate, where he headed the prestigious Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
The Monroe Doctrine is a cornerstone of American foreign policy. In December 1823, President James Monroe (served 1817–1825) used his annual message to Congress to confidently assert, "The American continents … are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers." The Monroe administration was worried about two recent developments. In 1821, Russia had threatened to extend its empire in North America by proclaiming that all Alaskan waters were off limits to non-Russian vessels. Also, the administration feared that European...
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"Votes for Women"
By: W.E.B. Du Bois
Date: September 1912
Source: Du Bois, W.E.B. "Votes for Women." The Crisis, September 1912, 234. Available online at http://womhist.binghamton.edu/webdbtw/doc12.htm; website home page: (accessed January 18, 2003).
About the Author: William Edward Burghart Du Bois (1868–1963) was an historian, sociologist, writer, and civil rights activist. Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, he was educated at Fisk University (1885–1888) and received a master's degree and a doctorate from Harvard (1888–1896). Du Bois became the first African American to earn a Ph.D. in history from Harvard. In 1910, he resigned as professor of history and economics at Atlanta University to accept a position with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
IntroductionIn June 1866, Congress ratified the Fourteenth Amendment, which granted constitutional protection to the civil rights of African Americans by defining them as citizens. In February 1869, Congress ratified the Fifteenth Amendment, which stated that the right to vote could not be denied because of one's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." One group of Americans that these...
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By: John Muir
Source: Muir, John. The Yosemite. New York: Century, 1912. Available online at http://www.yosemite.ca.us/john_muir_exhibit/writings/the_yo... ; website home page: http://www.yosemite.ca.us/ (accessed May 19, 2003).
About the Author: John Muir (1838–1914) was born in Scotland, but when he was a young boy, his family moved to the Wisconsin wilderness. He was fascinated by nature's wonders. With little formal education, he enrolled at the University of Wisconsin and studied the natural sciences. In 1892, he founded the Sierra Club, which aimed to preserve the Sierra Nevada.
The Hetch Hetchy Valley was once one of the most awe-inspiring natural wonders in the United States. Located within Yosemite National Park, it embraced the headwaters of the Tuolumne River, which flowed into the valley. The valley was surrounded by steep granite cliffs, which, rising to elevations of up to five thousand feet, stood quiet sentry over the waterfalls, giant sequoia groves, and lush meadows. The valley was very difficult to access, even in the summer, and early winter snows...
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"Composition and Characteristics of the Population for Wards of Cities of 50,000 or More: Lawrence"
By: Federal Bureau of the Census
Source: "Composition and Characteristics of the Population for Wards of Cities of 50,000 or More: Lawrence." In Thirteenth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1910, Federal Bureau of the Census, U.S. Decennial Census Publications: Vol. II, Population 1910. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1913–1914, 893. Available online at http://womhist.binghamton.edu/law/doc7.htm; website home page: http://www.binghamton.edu (accessed January 18, 2003).
About the Organization: The American census dates back
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"Woodrow Wilson: The Tampico Affair"
By: Woodrow Wilson
Date: April 20, 1914
Source: Wilson, Woodrow. "Woodrow Wilson: The Tampico Affair." Congressional Record. 63rd Cong., 2d sess., 1914. Vol. 51, pt. 4. Available online at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/tampico.htm; website home page: http://www.mtholyoke.edu (accessed January 19, 2003).
About the Author: Woodrow Wilson (1856–1924) was the twenty-eighth president of the United States (served 1913–1921). In 1910, he left his position as president of Princeton University to become the governor of New Jersey. In 1913, he became the first Democrat to occupy the White House since 1888. He called for limits on corporate campaign contributions, tariff reductions, a federal income tax, and the formation of the League of Nations.
President Woodrow Wilson believed that the Monroe Doctrine gave America the right to intervene in the affairs of Latin America to spread the gospel of democracy. Displaying an attitude similar to that of nineteenth-century Christian missionaries, Wilson told a British diplomat, "I am going to teach the South American republics to elect good men." An important...
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By: Margaret Sanger
Source: Sanger, Margaret. Family Limitation. New York, 1914. Reproduced in Katz, Esther, Cathy Moran Hajo, and Peter Engelman, eds. The Margaret Sanger Papers Electronic Edition: Margaret Sanger and The Woman Rebel, 1914–1916. Columbia, S.C.: Model Editions Partnership, 1999. Available online at ; website home page: http://.adh.sc.edu (accessed January 19, 2003).
About the Author: Margaret Sanger (1879–1966) was born in Corning, New York. Her mother, a devout Irish American Catholic, died at the age of fifty from tuberculosis. Margaret, the sixth of eleven children, blamed the premature death of her mother on her frequent pregnancies. In 1916, she opened the first birth control clinic. In 1921, she founded the American Birth Control League, which became Planned Parenthood.
In 1873, a U.S. Post Office inspector named Anthony Comstock convinced Congress to pass the "Act of the Suppression of Trade in, and Circulation of, Obscene Literature and Articles of Immoral Use," commonly known as the Comstock Act . Comstock, who was a leader of the Society for the Suppression of Vice, wanted to combat obscenity. The act criminalized the publication,...
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The Zimmermann Telegram
Telegram from Arthur Zimmermann to Heinrich J.F. von Eckhardt
By: Arthur Zimmermann
Date: January 16, 1917
Source: Zimmermann, Arthur. "Telegram to Heinrich J.F. von Eckhardt, 16 January 1917." Available online at ; U.S. National Archives and Records Administration home page: http://www.archives.gov (accessed January 20, 2003).
About the Author: Arthur Zimmermann (1864–1940) entered the German Foreign Office in 1902. Previously, he had been assigned to the consulate in China. Upon his recall to Germany, he landed in San Francisco. Crossing the continent by train to New York, Zimmermann was fascinated with America and considered himself an authority on its character. Zimmermann's knowledge of America, along with his support for U-boat submarines, was responsible for his promotion to foreign secretary in 1917.
Telegram from U.S. Ambassador Walter Page to President Woodrow Wilson
By: Walter Page
Date: February 24, 1917
Source: Page, Walter. "Telegram to Woodrow Wilson, 24 February 1917." Available online at ; U.S. National Archives and Records...
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Woodrow Wilson's Declaration of War Message
By: Woodrow Wilson
Date: April 2, 1917
Source: Wilson, Woodrow. "Address by the President of the United States." Congressional Record, 65th Congress, 1st sess., April 2, 1917, 102–104. Reprinted in Hyser, Raymond M., and J. Chris Arndt. Voices of the American Past: Documents in U.S. History. Vol. 2. Fort Worth, Tex.: Harcourt Brace, 1995, 122–124.
About the Author: Woodrow Wilson (1856–1924), born in Virginia, was the first post–Civil War president from the South. He earned a doctorate from Johns Hopkins University and became president of Princeton University in 1902. He was elected president of the United States in 1912 and reelected in 1916. He championed progressive reform, tariff reform, the Federal Trade Commission Act, and the Federal Reserve Act.
George Washington's farewell address warned the nation against becoming involved in "entangling alliances," and throughout the nineteenth century the policy of the United States was to stay out of European affairs. The Monroe Doctrine, announced in 1823, warned European countries not to further colonize the Western Hemisphere; an unspoken corollary to this doctrine was that the United States would stay out of Europe. Thus, when World War I...
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"Opposition to Wilson's War Message"
By: George W. Norris
Date: April 4, 1917
Source: Norris, George W. "Opposition to Wilson's War Message." Congressional Record. 65th Cong., 1st sess., 1917. Vol. 55, pt. 1. Available online at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/doc19.htm; website home page: http://www.mtholyoke.edu (accessed May 19, 2003).
About the Author: George W. Norris (1861–1942) was born on an Ohio farm. After earning a law degree from Valparaiso University in Indiana, he moved to Beaver City, Nebraska, to begin his law practice in 1885. In 1902, he was elected to Congress as a Republican; then in 1912, he was elected to the Senate. He sponsored the Twentieth Amendment to the Constitution and legislation to create the Tennessee Valley Authority.
Politically, George W. Norris was a Progressive. He believed that government must be made responsive to the will of ordinary people. He was not a radical, nor did he challenge the fundamental tenets of capitalism, but he believed that government must shed its laissez-faire (hands off) stance toward the business community. He believed that corporate America had a moral duty to ensure that it acted...
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"Over the Top": By an American Soldier Who Went
By: Arthur Guy Empey
Source: Empey, Arthur Guy. "Over the Top": By an American Soldier Who Went. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1917, 187–189.
About the Author: In May 1915, Arthur Guy Empey was in his office in Jersey City, New Jersey, when he read that a German U-boat had sunk the British passenger liner Lusitania, killing 1,198 people, including 128 Americans. Empey decided that because President Woodrow Wilson had not declared war on Germany, he would not enlist in the U.S. Army. Instead, he traveled to London, which was under attack by German zeppelins, and enlisted in the British army.
In August 1914, the uneasy peace of Europe was shattered. Once the Belgians refused to grant the Germans unopposed passage through their territory, the Germans implemented the Schlieffen Plan. First devised in 1905, the plan sought to end the encirclement of Germany by its two enemies—Russia and France—in a two-front war. The Germans believed that it would take underindustrialized Russia thirty days to mobilize its army, so they could hold Russia off with a minimum force of 200,000. The full weight of the German army, 1.5 million men, could then concentrate on France, its more dangerous foe. Instead of...
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"Henry Cabot Lodge Speaks Out Against the League of Nations, Washington, D.C., August 12, 1919"
By: Henry Cabot Lodge Sr.
Date: August 12, 1919
Source: Lodge, Henry Cabot, Sr. "Henry Cabot Lodge Speaks Out Against the League of Nations, Washington, D.C., August 12, 1919." Congressional Record. 66th Cong., 1st sess., 1919, p. 3784. Available online at "Great American Speeches": http://www.pbs.org/greatspeeches/timeline (accessed January 19, 2003).
About the Author: Henry Cabot Lodge Sr. (1850–1924) was born in Boston, Massachusetts. He graduated from Harvard with a law degree and was the first Harvard student to earn a Ph.D. in political science. He was a prolific writer of historical, biographical, and political works. In 1884, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives; in 1893, he was elected to the Senate, where he headed the prestigious Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
On November 14, 1918, World War I ended, but the nature of the postwar world had yet to be determined. The French called for lasting peace but also wanted to punish Germany. Millions of civilians across the continent faced starvation. Others in Germany and the late Austro-Hungarian Empire were disillusioned with democracy and capitalism and were turning to communism. In...
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"Statement by Emma Goldman at the Federal Hearing in Re Deportation"
By: Emma Goldman
Date: October 27, 1919
Source: Goldman, Emma. "Statement by Emma Goldman at the Federal Hearing in Re Deportation." United States National Archives, Record Group 165. Reproduced in the Emma Goldman Papers. Available online at http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Goldman/Exhibition/plea.html; website home page: (accessed January 20, 2003).
About the Author: Emma Goldman (1869–1940) was born in the poor Jewish ghetto in Kovno, Russia. In 1889, she moved to New York City and joined the anarchist movement, which rejected the authority of the state, church, and family and believed that morality was relative. Goldman also advocated free speech, free love, birth control, and unionism. She died in exile in Canada but was buried in Chicago next to the Haymarket anarchists whose deaths led her to anarchism.
A young J. Edgar Hoover of the Federal Bureau of Investigation once called Emma Goldman one of the most dangerous women in America. In 1892, she assisted her lifelong friend Alexander Berkman in the attempted assassination of the industrialist Henry Clay Frick. Frick was responsible for crushing the 24,000-member iron-workers union during the...
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Volstead Act of 1919
By: Andrew Volstead
Date: October 28, 1919
Source: Volstead, Andrew. Volstead Act of 1919. U.S. House. 66th Cong., 1st sess., H.R. 6810.U.S. Statutes at Large 41 (1919): 305–323. Available online at "Documents of American History II." http://tucnak.fsv.cuni.cz/~calda/Documents/1920s/Volstead.h... ; website home page: (accessed January 19, 2003).
About the Author: Andrew Volsted (1860–1947) was a second-generation Norwegian American from Minnesota. In 1903, the Republican was elected to Congress for the first of ten terms. On May 19, 1919, as chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, he sponsored the National Prohibition Act—more commonly known as the Volstead Act—prohibiting the manufacture, transportation, or sale of intoxicating beverages.
Public concern over alcohol consumption is almost as old as the country itself. In the early years of the Republic, the consumption of whiskey, rum, and hard cider, which generally were 80 proof, or 40 percent alcohol, was widespread. The annual per capita consumption of pure alcohol by the drinking-age population was 7.1 gallons. This figure does not take into account that many adult men did...
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