By: Albert Kahn
Date: 1910 Source: "Ford Motor Company Employees." 1916. Image no. IH161094. Available online at http://pro.corbis.com (accessed May 19, 2003).
About the Architect: Albert Kahn (1869–1942) was born in Rhaunen, Germany. He and his family immigrated to Detroit in 1880. Kahn began working as an architect in Detroit in 1884. In 1902, he started his own firm, and a year later he began working for Packard Automobile Company. In 1909, he was commissioned to design a new auto factory for Henry Ford; Kahn would eventually work on more than 1,000 projects for Ford. Kahn became America's foremost industrial architect, known for his functional designs. He designed some 2,000 factories in the United States and the Soviet Union. Kahn also designed numerous U.S. military installations and nonindustrial structures such as banks, office building, libraries, hospitals, and homes.
Detroit was booming in the early 1900s. Entrepreneurs, taking advantage of inexpensive land and a growing workforce, built auto factories and transformed Detroit into the Motor City.
Albert Kahn started designing factories almost by accident. In 1900, he designed a pneumatic-hammer factory and in 1903 was...
(The entire section is 760 words.)
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"Craftsman Furniture Made by Gustav Stickley"
By: Gustav Stickley
Source: Stickley, Gustav. Catalogue of Craftsman Furniture Made by Gustav Stickley at The Craftsman Workshops. Eastwood, N.J.: Gustav Stickley, 1910. Reprinted in Stickley Craftsman Furniture Catalogs. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1979.
About the Designer: Gustav Stickley (1858–1942) was born in Osceola, Wisconsin. In 1896, after years making furniture with his brothers and a trip to Europe where he met proponents of the Arts and Craft Movement, Stickley opened his own firm, Craftsman Workshops. It produced sturdy wood furniture that reflected the Arts and Crafts philosophy. In 1901, Stickley began publishing The Craftsman, a magazine that would become an important promoter of the Arts and Crafts Movement in the United States. Stickley's designs were very influential but he was not a successful businessman. His firm went bankrupt in 1915 and was purchased by his brothers. Stickley worked with them and as a consultant for the rest of his life.
(The entire section is 758 words.)
"Five Pretty Ways to Do the Hair"
By: Ladies' Home Journal Date: October 1911
Source: Merritt, B.G., and M. Stokes. "Five Pretty Ways to Do the Hair." Ladies Home Journal 28, no. 15, October 1911, 35
About the Publication: Ladies' Home Journal had its beginnings in a newspaper column called "Women and Home" in the Philadelphia Tribune and Farmer. In 1883, the writers of the column, Cyrus Curtis and Louisa Knapp Curtis, began a supplement to the Tribune and Farmer called Ladies' Journal. He was the publisher, and she was the editor. The supplement quickly developed into a magazine, which was named Ladies' Home Journal and became a prototype for other women's magazines of its kind. It was still being published at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The authors of this article, Blanche G. Merritt and Maude Stokes, compose fashion articles and drawings for the magazine.
While women had to fix their own hair in the nineteenth century, in the early twentieth century hairdressers
(The entire section is 681 words.)
"Flower Dresses for Lawn Fêtes"
By: Ladies' Home Journal Date: July 1911
Source: Musselman, M.E., and the Editors, "Flower Dresses for Lawn Fêtes," Ladies' Home Journal, July 1911. About the Publication: Ladies' Home Journal had its beginnings in a newspaper column called "Women and Home" in the Philadelphia Tribune and Farmer. In 1883, the writers of the column, Cyrus Curtis and Louisa Knapp Curtis, began a supplement to the Tribune and Farmer called Ladies' Journal. He was the publisher, and she was the editor. The supplement quickly developed into a magazine, which was named Ladies' Home Journal and became a prototype for other women's magazines. It was still being published at the beginning of the twenty-first century. M.E. Musselman may have been Emma Musselman, a fashion illustrator for Ladies' Home Journal.
Edward Bok, the editor of Ladies' Home Journal from 1890 until 1919, had a narrow view of women's place in society. Women were supposed to provide a loving home and, as incomes increased, part of their responsibility included buying the right products. The magazine's articles and advertisements both advised women about what they should purchase.
In the 1910s, issues of Ladies' Home Journal...
(The entire section is 759 words.)
"What Is a Bungalow?"
By: Phil M. Riley
Date: July 1912
Source: Riley, Phil M. "What Is a Bungalow?" Country Life in America, July 15, 1912, 11–12.
About the Publication: Country Life in America was published from 1901 to 1917 by Doubleday, Page & Co. After that it changed titles a number of times (New Country Life, Country Life in the War, Country Life and the Sportsman) and finally ceased publication altogether in 1942. Geared for sportsmen and people who lived or spent time in the country, the magazine included articles on gardening, dogs, country houses, and similar subjects.
By 1912, bungalows had become a popular architectural style for American homes. The design of the American bungalow was an adaptation of the "true" bungalow style, which originated in India. Traditional Indian bungalows were designed in response to that continent's hot climate. The efficient one-story buildings had open roof areas that allowed air to circulate and cool the house. But architects and builders found that by adapting the style, the bungalow could fit the needs of American homeowners—American bungalows, for instance, sometimes had a second story.
The Arts and Crafts Movement, which began in...
(The entire section is 1241 words.)
"Audacious Hats for Spineless Attitudes"
Magazine article, Clothing styles
By: Dress & Vanity Fair Date: September 1913
Source: "Audacious Hats for Spineless Attitudes." Dress & Vanity Fair, September 1913, 21.
About the Publication: The Vanity Fair Publishing Co. began publishing Dress & Vanity Fair in 1913. A year later, Condé Nast Publications took over the magazine and changed the name to Vanity Fair. The magazine sought to be the American counterpart of British magazines like The Tatler and The Sketch, which covered the arts, culture, and society as well as fashion, and aimed to attract both male and female readers. It was aimed at sophisticated and wealthy people. Vanity Fair was absorbed by Vogue magazine in 1936, but it reappeared in 1983.
Hats were an important accessory in the 1910s. A women was not seen in public without one at this time.
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"The Woolworth Building"
By: Cass Gilbert
Date: ca. 1913
Source: "Woolworth Building and City Hall Park, Manhattan." ca. 1913. Corbis. Image no. IH059708. Available online at http://pro.corbis.com (accessed January 27, 2003).
About the Architect: Cass Gilbert (1859–1934) worked as an architect's assistant and as a surveyor before earning an architectural degree at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He then joined the prestigious architectural firm McKim, Mead and White in New York. In 1885, Gilbert and James Knox Taylor opened their own architectural firm in St. Paul, Minnesota. In 1899, Gilbert moved back to New York, and about a decade later he designed his most famous building, the Woolworth Building. Gilbert's buildings were distinguished by their ornamental facades and grand interiors. He and his firm built Gothic-and Classical-influenced buildings into the 1930s. Among Gilbert's other famous works are the United States Custom House and the New York Life Insurance Building, both in New York City; the Minnesota State Capitol; and the Supreme Court Building.
The Cathedral of Commerce
By: Edwin A....
(The entire section is 2231 words.)
"Proper Dancing-Costumes for Women"
By: Irene Foote Castle
Source: Irene Foote Castle. "Proper Dancing-Costumes for Women." In Modern Dancing, by Vernon and Irene Foote Castle. Special Edition. New York: The World Syndicate Co., 1914.
About the Authors: Mr. and Mrs. Vernon Castle, as they were known, were professional dance partners as well as coauthors and husband and wife. Vernon Castle (1887–1918) was born Vernon Blythe in England. He received a degree in engineering from Birmingham University, but his career took a different direction when he moved to New York and began appearing as a dancer in plays, using the stage name Vernon Castle. Irene Foote (1893–1969) was born in New Rochelle, New York. She studied dance as a child, and at the age of 16 she appeared in local theatricals, learning dance techniques that would become part of the "Castle style." Irene and Vernon met in 1910 and married in 1911. They performed together from 1912 to 1916, becoming one of the most famous
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"Whether at Home or Away, Your Summer Equipment Should Include a Bottle of Listerine"
By: Lambert Pharmacal Company
Source: "Whether at home or away, your Summer equipment should include a bottle of Listerine." Magazine advertisement created for Lambert Pharmacal Company. 1915. Available online at Medicine and Madison Avenue: A Project of the National Humanities Center, the Digital Scriptorium, and the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History. Duke University Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library. Database no. MM0596. http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/mma (accessed January 23, 2003).
About the Organization: In 1879, Dr. Joseph Lawrence and Jordan Wheat Lambert, a chemist, created a new disinfectant for surgical procedures. They named their new product Listerine, after the English physician Sir Joseph Lister, who developed the first antiseptic procedures for surgery. In 1884, Lambert formed the Lambert Pharmacal Company to manufacture and market Listerine to the medical community. In 1955, Lambert and the Warner-Hudnut company merged, creating Warner-Lambert. Listerine, now marketed as a mouthwash, was one of the main products for Lambert at the time of the merger, accounting for more than fifty percent of the company's sales. In 2000, Warner-Lambert...
(The entire section is 818 words.)
"Shopping for the Well-Dressed Man"
By: Vanity Fair
Date: July 1916
Source: Trevor, Robert Lloyd. "Shopping for the Well-Dressed Man: Some Observations on a Standard Costume for Golfers." Vanity Fair, July 1916, 75.
About the Publication: The Vanity Fair Publishing Co. began publishing Dress & Vanity Fair in 1913. A year later, Condé Nast Publications took over the magazine and changed the name to Vanity Fair. The magazine sought to be the American counterpart of British magazines like The Tatler and The Sketch, which covered the arts, culture, and society as well as fashion, and aimed to attract both male and female readers. The magazine was aimed at sophisticated, wealthy people. Vanity Fair was absorbed by Vogue magazine in 1936, but it reappeared in 1983. Robert Lloyd Trevor, the author of this article, wrote a monthly column on men's fashions for Vanity Fair in the magazine's early years.
"For the Well-Dressed Man" was a regular feature of Vanity Fair magazine. Written by Robert Lloyd Trevor, the column featured descriptions and photographs or drawings of trendsetting men's apparel. The articles were written in a chatty, narrative style.
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"A Woman Can Always Look Younger Than She Really Is"
By: Elizabeth Arden
Date: July 1916
Source: "A Woman Can Always Look Younger Than She Really Is." Created for Elizabeth Arden. Published in Vanity Fair, July 1916.
About the Author: Elizabeth Arden (1878–1966) was born as Florence Nightingale Graham, the daughter of poor Canadian tenant farmers who had immigrated from England. She trained as a nurse, learning about skin care in the process, but instead of becoming a nurse moved to New York City. After working for a time with the E.R. Squibb pharmaceuticals company she took a job as a "treatment girl" at Eleanor Adair's beauty salon. In 1909, she opened a new salon on Fifth Avenue in partnership with Elizabeth Hubbard; the following year she changed her name to Elizabeth Arden and opened her own salon with that name. By her death in 1966, Arden had become one of the twentieth century's leading businesswomen, having built a worldwide beauty empire that encompassed 40,000 salons in 90 countries.
(The entire section is 869 words.)
"Wealthiest Negro Woman's Suburban Mansion"
By: The New York Times Magazine Date: November 4, 1917
Source: "Wealthiest Negro Woman's Suburban Mansion," The New York Times Magazine, November 4, 1917, 6.
About the Publication: The New York Times began publication of a Sunday magazine supplement, called The Times Illustrated Magazine, on September 6, 1896. Prior to this, Sunday newspaper magazines consisted of comic strips and "yellow journalism" (stories that were sensational). Adolph S. Ochs, who purchased The New York Times in 1896, wanted to change the image of newspapers from scandal sheets to publications that featured serious news. With its high-caliber articles, the magazine became a popular addition to the Sunday edition of the newspaper, and is it was still published weekly in 2003.
Madame C.J. Walker (1867–1919) was born Sarah Breedlove in Delta, Louisiana. The daughter of slaves, she grew up in the South and worked as a domestic. She began her hair-products business in 1905. When her own hair began to thin, she experimented with various combinations of ingredients and developed a product that she called "Wonderful Hair." Walker began her business by experimenting on friends and by selling door-to-door.By 1919, Walker's...
(The entire section is 1083 words.)
"YWCA Overseas Uniform, 1918"
By: House of Worth
Source: "YWCA Overseas Uniform." 1918. From the Costume Collection, House of Worth, Museum of the City of New York. Available online at ; website home page: http://www.mcny.org/ (accessed May 19, 2003).
About the Organization: The House of Worth was established by Charles Worth (1825–1895), a noted fashion designer, in the late nineteenth century in Paris. When Worth died, his son Jean took over the business, which was still in operation in 2003. The House of Worth is known primarily for elegant gowns and dresses, but it designed this World War I YWCA uniform...
(The entire section is 611 words.)
"Is There News in Shaving Soap?"
By: J. Walter Thompson Company
Date: May 29, 1919
Source: J. Walter Thompson Company. "Is There News in Shaving Soap?" Advertisement in Printer's Ink, May 29, 1919. Reprinted online in Emergence of Advertising On-Line Project. John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History. Duke University Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library. Database no. J0075. http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/eaa/ (accessed January 26, 2003).
About the Organization: The J. Walter Thompson Company is one of the oldest advertising companies in the world. The company was founded in 1864 and purchased by J. Walter Thompson in 1878. Thompson tried many innovative ideas when advertising its clients' products. The agency placed advertisements in women's magazines in the early twentieth century, added a research department in 1915, and made groundbreaking use of testimonials in ads.
J. Walter Thompson introduced the American public to many products in the early twentieth century. Many of them, such as Listerine and Lux, were still household names a century later.
Soap ads were extremely common at the time. The 1910s saw a...
(The entire section is 756 words.)
"Henry Ford in a Model T"
Source: "Henry Ford in a Model T." Corbis. Image no. BE036561. Available online at http://pro.corbis.com (accessed February 2, 2003).
About the Inventor: Henry Ford (1863–1947) grew up on a farm in what is now Dearborn, Michigan. At the age of sixteen he became an apprentice in the James Flower and Brothers Machine Shop. He continued learning about machines at the Detroit Drydock Company, a shipbuilding firm. In the late nineteenth century, Ford eventually developed a motorized automobile, and in 1899, he formed the Detroit Automobile Company, which later reorganized as the Cadillac Motor Car Company. In 1903, he founded the Ford Motor Company, which he eventually transformed into a multinational conglomerate in thirty-three countries. His innovations in automobile manufacturing changed the automobile industry—and life in America.
Henry Ford had been experimenting with automobiles for many years by the time the Model T was developed. The Model T was first sold to the public in 1908 and remained in production until 1927. The car became a best-seller by 1914. The Model T had a ten-gallon tank and four-cylinder/four-cycle motor; the early versions started with crankshafts. The Model T was available as a sedan, a truck, a convertible, a...
(The entire section is 893 words.)