By: W.E.B. Du Bois
Source: Du Bois, W.E.B. "The College-bred Community,"1910. In Aptheker, Herbert, ed. The Education of Black People: Ten Critiques 1906–1960 by W.E.B. Du Bois. Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1973, 31–40.
About the Author: William Edward Burghardt (W.E.B.) Du Bois (1868–1963) a prolific writer, educator, and African American activist, earned undergraduate degrees from Fisk and Harvard, and was the first African American to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard in 1895. He was a professor at Atlanta University. He founded the Niagara Movement in 1905 (which later developed into the NAACP) in opposition to the conservative position of Booker T. Washington. He was editor of Crisis magazine, a publication of the NAACP, from 1910 to 1934.
The reconstruction years following the Civil War (1861–1865) raised the hope that the newly freed slaves would be accorded social equality and full civil rights under the Constitution. Disillusionment followed, as the hands-off policy of the federal government allowed the development of the Jim Crow laws establishing a system of segregation, and the rise of the Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist groups. Basic rights of citizenship...
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The Indian and His Problem
By: Francis E. Leupp
Source: Leupp, Francis E. The Indian and His Problem. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1910, 125–127, 129–131.
About the Author: Francis E. Leupp (1849–1918), journalist and author, graduated from Williams College and Columbia University Law School. Leupp served as the Washington agent for the Indian Rights Association. He was head of the Washington Bureau of the New York Evening Post, and he served as Commissioner of Indian Affairs from 1905 to 1909. Leupp was known for his opposition to off-reservation boarding schools and his desire to preserve aspects of American Indian culture.
In 1871, American Indians, the majority of whom were by then living on reservations, were declared by Congress to be wards of the government. The tradition of warfare against American Indians was now to be replaced by a program of cultural assimilation. Starting in 1877, federal funds were allocated for schools for American Indians, and attendance was compulsory by 1891. By 1920, seventy percent of American Indian children were attending school.
By the early 1880s, an active reform movement focused on American Indian policy. White reformers were angered by corruption...
(The entire section is 2094 words.)
Equal Pay for Women Teachers
Equal Pay for Equal Work
By: Grace C. Strachan
Source: Strachan, Grace C. Equal Pay for Equal Work. New York: B.F. Buck, 1910. Reprinted in Hoffman, Nancy. Woman's "True" Profession: Voices from the History of Teaching. New York: Feminist Press/McGraw-Hill, 1981.
About the Author: Grace C. Strachan (18??–1922), educator, activist, author, and school district superintendent attended the State Normal School in Buffalo, New York, and did postgraduate work at New York University. She taught in Buffalo, and then in Brooklyn, New York. She was a leader in the struggle for equal pay for women teachers, and higher salaries and pensions for all teachers in New York City. She was a popular lecturer and published articles in a number of magazines.
"The Ideal Candidates"
By: Alice Duer Miller
Source: Miller, Alice Duer. "The Ideal Candidates." New York Tribune, 1915. Reprinted in Altenbaugh, Richard J., ed. The Teacher's Voice: A Social History of Teaching In Twentieth-century America. Washington, D.C.: The Falmer Press, 1992....
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"The Contribution of Psychology to Education"
By: Edward L. Thorndike
Source: Thorndike, Edward L. "The Contribution of Psychology to Education." Journal of Educational Psychology 1, 1910, 5–8.
About the Author: Edward L. Thorndike (1874–1949) received a B.S. from Wesleyan University, an M.A. from Harvard University, and a Ph.D. from Columbia University. He was a professor at Teachers College, Columbia University from 1899 to 1940. He published over 500 books and articles. Thorndike was well known for his work on human and animal behavior and learning, as well as psychological measurement.
With Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, (1859) came a new way of thinking about humans in relation to science. Traditionally, the study of human behavior was a matter for philosophers and theologians. After Darwin, many began to see humans as part of nature—therefore, understandable through science. They envisioned the possibility of a new "objective" science of the mind. This "New Psychology," based on the experimental methods of science, was developed by philosopher and psychologist William James and others beginning in the 1890s.
If humans evolved from lower animals, then the study of animal learning and...
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Medical Education in the United States and Canada: A Report to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
By: Henry S. Pritchett
Source: Pritchett, Henry S. Introduction to Medical Education in the United States and Canada: A Report to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Abraham Flexner, ed. Bulletin Number Four. New York: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1910, vii–viii, x–xi, xiii–xvi.
About the Author: Henry S. Pritchett (1857–1939) received a bachelor's degree in 1875 from the Collegiate Institute at Glasgow, Missouri. In 1895, he received a doctorate in astronomy from the University of Munich. Pritchett was a professor of astronomy at Washington University, superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, and president of M.I.T. He was president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching from 1905 to 1930.
Medical education in the United States prior to 1910 was woefully inadequate. Aspiring doctors might not receive any formal medical education at all, outside of an apprenticeship with a practicing physician. Of those who did receive training, many attended small, commercial medical schools lacking in equipment and quality instructors. Quacks and charlatans employing dubious methods were common. Significant advances in...
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"An Address Delivered Before the National Colored Teachers' Association"
By: Booker T. Washington
Source: Washington, Booker T. An Address Delivered Before the National Colored Teachers' Association, 1911. Reprinted in Davidson, Washington E., ed. Selected Speeches of Booker T. Washington. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran, 1932, 200–207.
About the Author: Booker Taliafero Washington (1856–1915) was born into slavery and worked his way through the Hampton Institute as the school's janitor. Washington taught at the Hampton Institute, and then founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama in 1881, which would become one of the foremost schools for African Americans. He was a prominent African American leader, speaker, and author. His autobiography, Up From Slavery, was influential worldwide.
After the Civil War (1861–1865) and the end of slavery, the period of reconstruction in the South ended in disappointment for those working toward full rights for African Americans. Jim Crow Laws and the 1896 Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson created a legal basis for segregation between blacks and whites. The rise of the Ku Klux Klan and other violent, white supremacist groups used non-legal means to keep African Americans "in their place."
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A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil
By: Jane Addams
Source: Addams, Jane. A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil. New York: Macmillan, 1912. Reprinted in Elshtain, Jean Bethke, ed. The Jane Addams Reader. New York: Basic Books, 2002, 177–80.
About the Author: Jane Addams (1860–1935), the first American woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931, was champion of social justice issues such as women's rights, the passage of child labor laws, education for immigrants, and peace. She was a speaker, author, activist, and progressive educator. In 1889, she founded the famous Hull House, a settlement house serving the urban poor in Chicago with a wide variety of programs.
Beginning in the 1870s, and continuing through World War I (1914–1918), the progressive education movement sought to develop educational innovations in methods and curriculum. These were aimed at social reform and relieving some of the problems of the urban poor in an industrial society. Reacting against the rigidly academic, classical, and college-preparatory schooling of the nineteenth century, progressives advocated a curriculum that would be relevant and meaningful to the lives of the majority of students. The emphasis was on socialization, education...
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The Montessori Method
By: Maria Montessori
Source: Montessori, Maria. The Montessori Method. Anne E. George, trans. New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1912, 169–175.
About the Author: Maria Montessori (1870–1952) was the first woman physician in Italy. She later studied psychology and philosophy and taught anthropology at the University of Rome. She was well known in Europe as a speaker, advocating for women's and children's rights, before she founded, in 1905, the Casa dei Bambini, or "Children's House." There she developed her method of education. She lectured and conducted teacher-training courses in the United States, India, Spain, England and the Netherlands.
Maria Montessori began her career as a pediatrician and, in the course of treating patients, she noticed how children learn. In 1901, Montessori was appointed director of an asylum in Rome for children classified as "deficient and insane." Shocked by the poor treatment and lack of stimulation afforded the patients, she began a program of reform and education based on her meticulous study of the children and their behavior. The children made remarkable progress, and the results of her work received much attention. Montessori then founded, in 1905, her famous Casa...
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"Why Should the Kindergarten Be Incorporated as an Integral Part of the Public School System?"
By: Philander P. Claxton
Source: Claxton, Philander P. "Why Should the Kindergarten Be Incorporated as an Integral Part of the Public School System?" Journal of Proceedings and Addresses, National Education Association, 1913, 426–427.
About the Author: Philander P. Claxton (1862–1957), a graduate of the University of Tennessee and the Johns Hopkins University, was United States commissioner of education from 1911 to 1921. He had also been a teacher, superintendent, normal school instructor, and head of the Department of Education at the University of Tennessee. Claxton was president of Austin Peay Normal School from 1930 until his retirement in 1946.
Friedrich Froebel, a German educator, was the originator of the kindergarten, and he founded the first one in 1837. Froebel was influenced by the philosophy of the Swiss educator, Johann Pestalozzi, who emphasized that the origins of all knowledge are impressions taken in by the senses and education is a natural process of unfolding abilities. For Pestalozzi, the curriculum should be adapted to children at their particular point in the developmental process. Therefore, Froebel reasoned, the education of very young children should begin with...
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Smith-Lever Act of 1914
By: Hoke Smith and Asbury Francis Lever
Date: May 8, 1914
Source: Smith-Lever Act (Agricultural Extension Act) of 1914. Stat. 372, 7 USC 341 et seq., May 8, 1914. Reprinted in The Statutes at Large of the United States of America from March 1913 to March 1915, volume 38. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1915, 372–374. Available online at ; website homepage http://www.reeusda.gov (accessed May 15, 2003).
About the Authors: Hoke Smith (1879–1931) began his career as a lawyer in private practice. He was appointed Secretary of the Interior under President Grover Cleveland (served 1885–1889 and 1893–1897) and was twice elected governor of Georgia. As governor and Democratic Georgia senator, Smith was an advocate for rural and agricultural interests. He was chairman of the Commission on National Aid to Vocational Education in 1914.
Asbury Francis Lever (1875–1940) graduated from Newberry College in 1895 and Georgetown Law School in 1899. He represented South Carolina in the U.S. House of Representatives for ten consecutive terms from 1901 to 1919, and was chairman of that body's Committee on Agriculture from 1913 to 1919.
After the Civil War...
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Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Tenure
By: American Association of University Professors, Committee on Academic Freedom and Tenure
Source: American Association of University Professors. Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Tenure. n.p., 1915.
About the Organization: At the January 1915 meeting of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP), the president of the Association was authorized to appoint a committee of fifteen members "to take up the problem of academic freedom in general." The result was the Committee on Academic Freedom and Tenure, chaired by Edwin R.A. Seligman of Columbia University. The report of the Committee included the "General Declaration of Principles," outlining the AAUP's position on academic freedom.
From the colonial period, boards overseeing colleges and colonial governments were concerned with the adherence of college professors to the religious and moral standards of the community, and their loyalty to the government—professors could be asked to swear loyalty to England. Increasingly, after the Civil War (1861–1865), American universities took on a more secular character in their curricula and aims. By the early part of the twentieth century, the AAUP report notes, infringements on...
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Democracy and Education
By: John Dewey
Source: Dewey, John. Democracy and Education. New York: Macmillan, 1916.
About the Author: John Dewey (1859–1952), a prolific and enormously influential philosopher of education, psychology, politics, and social issues, was associated with the progressive education movement. He was a professor of philosophy, psychology, and pedagogy at the University of Chicago, where he founded the Laboratory School, a progressive, experimental school associated with the University. In 1904, Dewey left Chicago for Teachers College, Columbia University. After his retirement from teaching in 1939, he continued to publish, and he was in demand as a speaker until his death.
Education, for Dewey, is growth. The teacher's job is to start with the abilities and understandings the students bring to school, and to guide the student's growth in the proper direction. He emphasized that teachers should begin this process with the child's own motivations and interests. Through the careful selection of environmental influences and individual guidance, the teacher gradually assists the student in moving toward an understanding of the major areas of human knowledge. Children should initially learn concepts...
(The entire section is 1466 words.)
The Measurement of Intelligence
By: Lewis M. Terman
Source: Terman, Lewis M. The Measurement of Intelligence: An Explanation of and a Complete Guide for the Use of the Stanford Revision and Extension of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1916.
About the Author: Lewis M. Terman (1877–1956), well-known for his longitudinal study of gifted children, received his undergraduate and masters degree from Indiana University, and his Ph.D. from Clark University. He was a professor of education and psychology at Stanford University, and he worked with the U.S. Army during World War I (1914–1918) testing and classifying recruits.
Beginning in the 1890s, William James and others developed what was called the "New Psychology" based on "objective" science. While the study of human behavior had once been the exclusive realm of theology and philosophy, the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species in 1859 led many to view humans as part of nature and understandable through science. Human intelligence was one area of inquiry. In 1905, Alfred Binet began work on an intelligence scale to identify those of subnormal mental ability. He based the scale on the idea of "mental age," or an individual...
(The entire section is 2364 words.)
Smith-Hughes Act of 1917
By: Hoke Smith and Dudley M. Hughes
Date: February 23, 1917
Source: Smith-Hughes Act (Vocational Education Act) of 1917. Public Law 347. 64th Cong., 2d sess., February 23, 1917. Reprinted in The Statutes at Large of the United States of America from December, 1915, to March, 1917. Vol. 39, Part 1. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1917, 929–936.
About the Authors: Hoke Smith (1879–1931), known as a staunch advocate for farmers and their interests, began his career as a lawyer. He served two terms as governor of Georgia, and he was appointed Secretary of the Interior under President Grover Cleveland (served 1885–1889 and 1893–1897). Smith was a Democratic senator from Georgia, and chairman of the Commission on National Aid to Vocational Education.
Dudley M. Hughes (1848–1927) attended the University of Georgia and was involved in agricultural businesses. He was a Georgia State Senator from 1882 to 1883, and he served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1909 to 1917. He was Chairman of the House Committee on Education, and he was appointed to the Commission on National Aid to Vocational Education in 1914. He was known as a strong supporter of agricultural education.
IntroductionDuring the last half of the...
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Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education
By: Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education
Source: Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior. Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education: A Report of the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education, Appointed by the National Education Association. Bulletin No. 35. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1918.
About the Commission: The Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education, chaired by Clarence D. Kingsley, was appointed by the National Education Association in 1913 to determine the aims and direction of public, secondary education in the United States. The result, Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education, was released in 1918.
British philosopher Herbert Spencer, through his mid–nineteenth century essays on education, had a profound influence on American educational thinking. The purpose of education, for Spencer, was "to prepare us for complete living." He offered five categories that make up "complete living": activities regarding 1) "self-preservation," 2) "securing the necessaries of life," 3) "rearing and discipline of offspring," 4) "the maintenance of proper social and political relations," and 5) "gratification of the...
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"The Project Method"
By: William Heard Kilpatrick
Source: Kilpatrick, William Heard. "The Project Method." Teachers College Record 19, 1918, 319–323.
About the Author: William Heard Kilpatrick (1871–1965) earned degrees from Mercer University and the Johns Hopkins University, and he received his Ph.D. from Columbia University. He was a teacher and principal in the Georgia public schools. A student of the influential progressive educator John Dewey, Kilpatrick is credited with interpreting Dewey's theories for a wider audience. He taught at Mercer University, and then at Teachers College, Columbia University, until his retirement. He was the author of many books and articles.
William Heard Kilpatrick began his career in education during the progressive era. Although the progressive movement encompassed a variety of approaches and philosophies, progressive educators generally emphasized a scientific and experimental approach to educational problems. It focused on student interests, socialization, meaningful curriculum, freedom for students, and the needs of individual. Kilpatrick was a student, and later a colleague, of John Dewey, one of the most important figures in progressive education.
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