Topics in the News
Although yacht racing in America began informally with the Dutch burghers of New Amsterdam, the first recorded race featured John Cox Stevens's Wave defeating John Cushing's Sylph in 1835. Stevens, a wealthy New Jersey real estate broker and sports promoter, spearheaded the organization of the New York Yacht Club in 1844. As commodore of the New York Yacht Club, he organized a syndicate of five other club members that commissioned William H. Brown in 1850 to construct a yacht "to race against the best the British had to offer." Following the design by George Steers, Brown finished America in 1851, in time for Stevens to accept an invitation from the Royal Yacht Squadron to enter its race around the Isle of Wight. Pitted against seventeen seasoned British boats, America started poorly but finished with a commanding lead and won the hundred-guinea cup offered by the Royal Yacht Squadron. In response to the win by America, the Spirit of the Times observed that "old England was no match for young America." Stevens accepted the cup and kept it on display at his Annandale, New Jersey, estate. After his death in 1857, it became a trust of the New York Yacht Club "as a permanent challenge cup, open to competition by any organized yacht club of any foreign country."
The Lipton Era.
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Baseball: Birth of the Modern Game
Americans had played games that were in some ways similar to baseball since the colonial era. In the 1840s and 1850s affluent New York merchants and businessmen began to form baseball clubs. Alexander Cartwright in 1845 organized the most prominent of these clubs, the New York Knickerbockers. Under Cartwright baseball became standardized: he placed the bases ninety feet apart in the shape of a diamond, positioned the pitching mound forty-five feet from home plate, limited teams to nine players, and forbade throwing the ball at the base runner. The Civil War disseminated Cartwright's game throughout the nation as Union and Confederate soldiers alike routinely played baseball. In 1869 the Cincinnati Red Stockings emerged as the first professional team, and in 1876 eight professional teams formed the National League. NL team owners agreed not to place more than one team in a single city and not to play teams from other leagues. Team owners—like their counterparts in late-nineteenth-century American industry—imposed strict order upon their workers, the players. Their chief weapon was the reserve clause, which restricted the movement between teams of players in search of higher salaries.
Opposition to the National League.
In the 1880s and 1890s the NL faced opposition from upstart rival leagues and players organizing for...
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Baseball: Early Powers
Summary of the Decade.
During the 1900s no single team dominated, although several teams captured consecutive league pennants during two- or three-year periods. After the Brooklyn Dodgers won the National League pennant in 1900, the Pittsburgh Pirates claimed it three straight years, from 1901 to 1903. In 1909 the Pirates returned to the top of the National League as well as all of baseball by winning the World Series. After Pittsburgh, the New York Giants, led by John J. McGraw, claimed two National League titles in 1904 and 1905 and the World Series in 1905. The Chicago Cubs won three consecutive pennants from 1906 to 1908. In 1908 the Cubs became the first team to win two consecutive World Series titles. Only two American League teams won two or more consecutive pennant races during the decade. The Boston club, who changed their name from the Beaneaters to the Red Sox in 1904, captured the American League title in 1903 and 1904. The Beaneaters, led by legendary pitcher Cy Young, claimed the first, albeit unofficial, World Series title in 1903. From 1907 to 1909 Detroit, powered by the irascible Ty Cobb, claimed the pennant. The Chicago White Sox, in 1901 and 1906, and the Philadelphia Athletics, in 1902 and 1905, also garnered American League titles.
In addition to winning four National League pennants, the Pittsburgh...
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A "Gentlemanly" Game.
By 1900 major league baseball, like most American institutions, was racially segregated. The roots of this separatism may be traced to the 1867 decision of the National Association of Base Ball Players (NABBP), the ruling organization of amateur baseball, to bar African American players and teams. Maintaining that only whites could uphold the "gentlemanly character" of amateur baseball, the NABBP argued that excluding blacks would prevent racial resentment and avoid a "rupture on political grounds." Professional baseball teams, however, valued winning games more than underscoring racial differences and signed contracts with skilled African American players. In 1872 a professional team in New Castle, Pennsylvania, signed John "Bud" Fowler to play second base. Although Fowler is recognized as the first black to play professional baseball, Moses Fleetwood Walker was the first to play in the major leagues. Toledo of the American Association signed Walker as a catcher in 1883. White baseball fans, especially those in the South, did not share major league team owners' appreciation for black baseball talent, however. In 1884 the Toledo manager received a letter threatening to "mob Walker" if he accompanied the team to play in Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the former Confederacy. Walker did not make the trip to Richmond, as a broken rib sustained in an earlier game...
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A New Game.
In the fall of 1891 Dr. Luther Halsey Gulick, the director of physical education at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts, asked one of his instructors, James Naismith, to develop a new indoor game to replace the gymnastics and calisthenics routinely practiced during the winter months. After studying the attributes of lacrosse, football, rugby, and soccer, Naismith created a game in which players would bounce and pass a soccer ball from one teammate to another and score points by tossing the ball into a suspended goal. The concept for the game came to him from watching rugby players spending the winter months throwing rugby balls into boxes. Since he did not have boxes to use for goals, he obtained two peach baskets and hung them from the railing around the YMCA gymnasium, ten feet above the floor. In December 1891 Naismith developed thirteen rules for the new game, which received an unenthusiastic response from his students, who had tired of their instructor's experimentation with new games that fall. "I asked the boys to try it once as a favor to me," Naismith recalled. "They started, and after the ball was first thrown up there was no need for further coaxing." Although some students wanted to name the new game "Naismith Ball," their modest instructor settled on a simpler suggestion: "basketball."...
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Boxing's Brutal Legacy.
In the 1900s boxing, or prizefighting, still held much of its nineteenth-century character. For much of the century pugilists had fought under the London, or Broughton, Rules, with bare fists, battering each other through endless rounds until only one combatant remained standing. Offended by the sport's brutality and its association with blood sports such as cockfighting, as well as crime, gambling, drinking, and prostitution, Victorian society instituted strict prohibitions against it. Although illegal, prizefights were held in back rooms of saloons, on secluded riverboats, and in isolated frontier towns. In 1890 New Orleans legalized prizefighting under the rules formulated in 1867 by the marquess of Queensbury, an English aristocrat and sportsman. Aimed at reducing boxing's brutality, these rules required the use of gloves, prohibited wrestling holds, limited rounds to three minutes, and provided for ten-second knockouts. In 1892 New Orleans held the first heavyweight championship under these rules between James J. Corbett and John L. Sullivan, who had held the heavyweight title since 1882. Corbett knocked out Sullivan in the twenty-first round and became the first heavyweight champion under the Queensbury Rules. With Corbett's victory the bareknuckle era in prizefighting came to an end. Adoption of the Queensbury Rules, however, did not immediately curb boxing's...
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College Football: Coaches, Players, and Teams
The Rise of College Football.
By 1900 football had become well established as the principal sport in American colleges and universities. After Rutgers defeated Princeton 6 goals to 4 in history's first collegiate football game on 6 November 1869, the sport spread from the Northeast to the Midwest, West, and South. In the Northeast, Yale University, led by former player and unofficial coach Walter Camp, dominated the game. Yale won 197 and lost only 9 games during the 1880s and 1890s, holding opponents scoreless in 1888, 1891, and 1892. In the Midwest the University of Michigan started playing football in 1879 but briefly abandoned the game in 1882, after losing several games to the powerful eastern schools. Michigan resumed football in 1883 and became the region's powerhouse. With the inauguration of an annual game between Stanford and the University of California, Berkeley, in 1892, football caught on in the West as well. Southern colleges and universities took up the game in the 1880s and 1890s, but a dominating team did not emerge in that region until the rise of Vanderbilt in the 1900s and 1910s.
Throughout the 1900s the teams from the Northeast, particularly the Ivy League, continued to dominate college football. Teams from Yale (1900, 1907, and 1909), Princeton (1903 and 1906), and the University of Pennsylvania (1904...
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College Football: Crisis and Reform
Character of College Football.
College football began as a student-centered activity on the campuses of a few private northeastern colleges. By the turn of the century, however, the game had evolved into a nationwide commercial spectacle, controlled by college and university administrators, and played more for spectator enjoyment and college prestige than player satisfaction. From this transformation came an emphasis upon winning, recruitment of players, abuses of eligibility, intense training schedules, professional coaching, and deliberate violence. The brutality of the game, which often resulted in injury and death, nearly led to football's demise. While some journalists, college presidents, and politicians called for the game's abolition, others such as R. Tait McKenzie, the director of physical education at the University of Pennsylvania, urged reform, recognizing the "training in presence of mind, audacity, courage, and endurance of pain and fatigue" that football provided young men.
The rise of football power-houses, such as Harvard, Carlisle, and Michigan, demonstrated how important winning had become to colleges. One factor in the winning calculus was the professional coach, who often received a salary greater than those of the most esteemed professors, despite not being a regular member of the university...
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The Game in America.
Americans began playing golf after the American Revolution, with two of the earliest clubs established in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1786, and Savannah, Georgia, in 1795. Between the War of 1812 and the Civil War, Americans showed little interest in golf, and not until the 1880s did significant numbers of Americans start playing the game again. In 1887 Joseph M. Fox, a member of the Merion Cricket Club in Philadelphia, and John Reid, a Scottish immigrant and executive of an ironwork in Yonkers, New York, organized the nation's first modern golf club, named St. Andrews after the historic club in Scotland. In 1891 William K. Vanderbilt hired Willie Dunn, a noted Scottish golfer, to build Shinnecock Hills, the first professionally designed course, near Southampton, Long Island, where New York's wealthy elite had summer homes. The Shinnecock Hills Golf Club became the model for clubs throughout the country. By the mid 1890s rich golfers easily could follow the seasons, playing clubs in the Northeast during the spring and summer and the South during the fall and winter. In 1894 both St. Andrews and the Newport Club, in Rhode Island, held national championship tournaments.
Rise of the United States Golf Association.
In 1894 the Amateur Golf Association (AGA) was formed to administer and standardize the game. Later that...
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A Family Pastime.
Although the first recorded game of lawn tennis in America was played 8 October 1874 at Camp Apache, near Tucson, Arizona, Mary Ewing Outerbridge, a New York socialite, is credited with introducing the game to the United States. In 1874, during her annual winter vacation in Bermuda, she observed British army officers hitting a rubber ball across a net stretched across a frashly mowed lawn with implements strung with catgut. Intrigued by the game, she purchased a box of tennis equipment and brought it back to the United States, whereupon customs agents confiscated the unrecognizable items. Emilius Outerbridge, an influential family member prominent in the shipping business, succeeded in getting the tennis accoutrements into the country. Soon thereafter, the Staten Island Cricket and Baseball Club, which Mary's brother Eugenius directed, set up a tennis court in the corner of the cricket field. For nearly a year tennis was an Outerbridge family pastime. As other club members began learning and playing the game, the club devoted one day a week exclusively to it. Tennis, however, did not spread across the nation solely from the Staten Island Cricket and Baseball Club. The game had similar beginnings in Boston, Philadelphia, New Orleans, and San Francisco.
Social Aspects of Tennis.
Throughout the late nineteenth and early...
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Olympics: The 1900 Games
In the 1890s Baron Pierre de Coubertin, a wealthy French aristocrat, revived the Olympic Games. Interest in the Olympic Games, which had last been contested in 776 B.C., had increased significantly since the early 1880s, after a team of German archaeologists unearthed the ruins of Olympia, the site of the ancient Greek athletic festival. In 1894 Coubertin held a conference in Paris to establish an organization to govern the Olympic Games and the principles upon which to restore them. From this conference emerged the International Olympic Committee (IOC), with Coubertin as its secretary-general, and an accord that the games would be held in a different city every four years, that only modern sports would be contested, and that only amateur adult males would be allowed to compete. In 1895 the IOC selected Athens to host the first modern Olympic Games in 1896. Greek athletes dominated the games, winning a total of 47 medals. America, second to Greece, garnered 19 medals, of which 16 came in track and field alone.
Paris Granted the Games.
Following the conclusion of the inaugural Olympic Games in Athens, many officials and athletes, including the Americans, petitioned the IOC to hold the games permanently in Athens. Coubertin, however, upheld the principle that the games would be held in a different city every four years, insisting...
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Olympics: The 1904 Games
Saint Louis Gets the Games.
In 1893 Coubertin toured the United States to garner support for the revival of the Olympic Games. He had attended the Chicago Columbian Exposition that year and was impressed by the enterprise and efficiency of the city. In 1899 William Rainey Harper, the president of the University of Chicago, expressed interest in having Chicago host the Olympics. With Coubertin's support the IOC awarded Chicago the 1904 Olympic Games. The city, however, lost its enthusiasm for holding the games, and Saint Louis, which planned to hold a World's Fair in 1904 to celebrate the centennial of the Louisiana Purchase, expressed interest. The IOC, following a 14-2 decision, awarded the Olympics to Saint Louis in 1902. Hoping to avoid the poor preparations of the last Olympiad, Coubertin asked James E. Sullivan, the president of the American Athletic Union, to manage the preparations for the games. Coubertin also asked Theodore Roosevelt to preside as the president of the games, but the American president declined the offer, citing his responsibilities in Washington.
An American Affair.
Twelve nations sent at least one representative to the Olympics, and of the 554 athletes who participated, 432 were Americans. Many teams declined to journey to the nation's Midwest, which many foreigners perceived as a savage wilderness. As a...
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Olympics: The 1908 Games
In 1904 the IOC designated Rome as the host of the 1908 Olympic Games. Although Berlin was a strong contender for the games, Coubertin remarked that he "desired Rome only because I wanted Olympism, after its return from the excursion to utilitarian America to don once again the sumptuous toga, woven of art and philosophy, in which I had always wanted to clothe her." The Rome Olympic organizers had grand plans for the 1908 games, which were to include automobile races at Milan, boxing and wrestling in the Colosseum, and yachting in the Bay of Naples. Rome, however, declined to hold the games after its organizing committee dissolved over personality disputes and Mount Vesuvius erupted, claiming two thousand lives in 1906. London, which planned to hold the Franco-British Exposition in 1908, persuaded the IOC to award it the games.
Despite its association with a World's Fair, the 1908 Olympics marked an improvement in management and bureaucratic organization. London erected a new seventy-thousand-seat stadium and adopted metric distances for athletic events. The distance of the marathon, however, was set at the English calibration of 26 miles, 385 yards, the distance from the start at Windsor Palace to the finish at the stadium. The British Olympic Association also clarified the definition of an amateur athlete as...
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Anderson, Willie 1880-1910
Son of Greenskeeper.
Willie Anderson, the first golfer to win four U.S Open titles, was the son of Tom Anderson, a Scottish immigrant, who worked as a greenskeeper. Willie and his brother, Tom Jr., learned how to play golf from their father, and both became professionals. A muscular man, with strong shoulders and forearms, Anderson developed a game characterized by a smooth swing and superb concentration. After finishing second in his first U.S. Open in 1897, losing the championship by a single stroke to Joe Lloyd, he placed third in 1898, fifth in 1899, and a distant eleventh in 1900.
U.S. Open Champion.
Anderson captured his first U.S. Open title in 1901, defeating Alex Smith by one stroke in a playoff round at the difficult Myopia Hunt Club in South Hamilton, Massachusetts. After a fifth-place finish in 1902, he captured three consecutive U.S Opens from 1903 to 1905. Although Bobby Jones and Ben Hogan each have also won four U.S. Open titles, Anderson remains the only competitor to have won three consecutive tournaments. Of these victories, the closest was a two-stroke triumph over David Brown in 1903. After using the original gutta-percha ball in his first U.S. Open win, Anderson turned to the newer Haskell rubber-core ball for his three consecutive titles.
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Camp, Walter 1859-1925
Father of American Football.
Walter Camp, who was associated with football at Yale University from 1876 to 1910, first as a player and then as a coach, is considered the "Father of American Football." He was the son of Leverett and Ellen Camp, and his father served as a schoolmaster in New Haven, Connecticut. After attending the Hopkins Grammar School in New Haven, Camp enrolled at Yale University and graduated in 1880. He stayed on at Yale to study medicine for two years. In 1882 Camp started working for the Manhattan Watch Company and became president of the company in 1903. In 1888 he married Alice Graham Sumner, the sister of William Graham Sumner, an eminent Yale sociologist and outspoken proponent of social Darwinism.
Camp played football at Yale from 1876 to 1882, the final two years as a medical student. In 1876 he played halfback in the first Harvard-Yale game. As the team captain for the next three years, Camp developed rule changes that cast the foundation of modern American football. One of his first innovations was to reduce the number of players on the field for each team from fifteen to eleven. In 1880 he proposed replacing the rugby scrum with the scrimmage. Whereas the scrum led to constant turnover of the ball from team to team, the scrimmage encouraged the undisputed...
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Daniels, Charles M. 1885-1973
Innovator of the American Crawl.
Charles M. Daniels, who emerged as the nation's foremost swimmer at the 1904 Olympic Games in Saint Louis, initiated America's twentieth-century dominance in the sport. At Saint Louis he won the 200- and 400-meter freestyle events, after finishing second to Zoltan Halmay of Hungary in the 100 meters. In 1905 a loss to J. Scott Leary marked a turning point in Daniels's career. Leary defeated Daniels with the Australian crawl, using a two-beat kick. Daniels adopted the Australian crawl but modified the kick to six beats. His new stroke, which became known as the American crawl, helped Daniels to win a record thirty-three individual American Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) indoor and outdoor titles from 1904 to 1911 at distances ranging from 50 yards to a mile.
America's Best Olympic Swimmer.
Daniels secured America's hegemony in men's Olympic swimming at the 1906 and 1908 Olympic Games. He won the 100-meter freestyle and defeated Hungary's Halmay both times, establishing a world record of 1:05.6 in 1908. In all Daniels won a record four gold, one silver, and two bronze medals in the Olympic Games. His bronze medals came in the 50-yard freestyle in 1904 and the 4x200-meter freestyle relay in 1908. Daniels's record of four swimming gold medals stood until 1968, when Don...
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Johnson, Jack 1878-1946
Son of a Former Slave.
Jack Johnson, the first African American heavyweight champion, was born in Galveston, Texas, the son of Henry and Tina Johnson. His father, a former slave, worked as a porter and a janitor. Despite their lack of formal education, Johnson's parents encouraged their six children to pursue learning and provided a stable, religious home life for them. Johnson completed the fifth grade in elementary school before going to work in the cotton fields and assisting his father as a janitor. He later worked as a stevedore at the Galveston shipyards and as a stable boy in a carnage shop. Walter Lewis, his boss at the carriage shop, was a former prizefighter who taught Johnson how to box. He honed his skills in the "battle royals," degrading staged fights between black youths, and in private clubs before entering the professional ring in 1897.
Early Professional Career.
Johnson's first major...
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Kraenzlein, Alvin 1876-1928
Alvin Kraenzlein is one of the pivotal figures in the development of track and field. Historians of the sport recognize him as the father of straight-lead-leg hurdling (in which the first leg over the hurdle is kept straight and parallel to the ground). Hurdlers continue to employ this technique, which permits the athlete to clear the barriers without breaking stride. Although Arthur C. M. Croome of Great Britain first attempted the straight-lead-leg style in 1886, Kraenzlein perfected the technique. The style probably came naturally to him because of his sprinting and long-jumping skills. Kraenzlein in the 1900 Olympic Games won gold medals in four individual events, a feat that has never been equaled. (While Jesse Owens in 1936 and Carl Lewis in 1984 collected four gold medals apiece, one of each man's medals came in a relay event.)
High School Superstar.
Kraenzlein was born in Milwaukee, the son of Augusta and John G. Kraenzlein, a brewer. He demonstrated all-around track-and-field skill during his senior year at Milwaukee's East Side High School in 1895. In a meet against crosstown rival West Side High School, Kraenzlein won the 100- and 220-yard dashes, 120-yard high hurdles, 220-yard low hurdles, high jump, long jump, and shot put. In the Wisconsin...
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Larned, William 1872-1926
The Century's First Champion.
William Larned ranks as the twentieth century's first great tennis champion. From 1901 to 1902 and from 1907 to 1911 he captured the United States Lawn Tennis Association (USLTA) men's singles title seven times, equaling the record established by Richard Sears in the 1880s. Only Bill Tilden, during the 1920s, has matched the record shared by Sears and Larned. The son of a wealthy New York landowner and lawyer, Larned attended but did not graduate from Cornell University. In 1890 he won the intercollegiate tennis singles championship.
A Complete Player.
Larned's game was characterized by precise footwork, balance, ease, and grace, except when nervousness or annoyance marred his concentration. His service and volleys were powerful and accurate. Larned frustrated his opponents with forehands and backhands to the corners. Although easily distracted throughout the 1890s, his temperament and concentration improved throughout the 1900s, and from 1907 to 1911 he dominated the major events. Besides his seven USLTA triumphs, Larned won most of the prestigious northeastern tournaments and ten of his fifteen Davis Cup matches. He also reached the Wimbledon quarterfinals twice. Plagued by rheumatoid arthritis, Larned retired after the 1911 Davis Cup.
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Wagner, Honus 1874-1955
The Flying Dutchman.
One of baseball's greatest shortstops, Honus Wagner earned the nick-name of "The Flying Dutchman" because of his Germanic heritage and great speed. John Peter Wagner was one of five sons and four daughters of Katrina and Peter Wagner, a coal miner. At age twelve Wagner began working in the coal mines and steel mills of western Pennsylvania. He learned to play baseball on a sandlot team with his brothers and mastered each position. "While Wagner was the greatest short-stop," remarked New York Giants manager John J. McGraw, "he could have been the number one player at any position he might have selected."
A Decade of Dominance.
Wagner ranked as the most dominating offensive player of the 1900s. After playing for the National League's Louisville Colonels for two years, he joined the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1899, where he remained until he retired. Throughout his twenty-one-year career he never batted below .300, and he led the National League in batting average in 1900, 1903, 1904, 1906 to 1909, and 1911. During the 1900s Wagner also led the NL twice in hits and runs scored, three times in triples, five times in stolen bases, six times in slugging, and eight times in doubles. With a lifetime batting average of .329 and a slugging average of .469, he compiled 10,247 at bats, 1,740...
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People in the News
On 30 April 1904 Aaron L. "Dixie Kid" Brown defeated Joe Walcott for the world welterweight boxing championship. In late 1904 he outgrew the welterweight title and fought successfully as a middleweight.
From 1899 to 1901 Dwight F. Davis captured three consecutive United States Lawn Tennis Association doubles championships. In 1901 he initiated the Davis Cup tennis tournament between the United States and Great Britain.
Playing in the "deadball era," Harry H. Davis, of the Philadelphia Athletics, led the American League in home runs for four consecutive seasons, with 10 in 1904, 8 in 1905, 12 in 1906, and 8 in 1907.
In 1904 Norman Dole became the first pole vaulter to clear twelve feet, with a vault of 12' 1 1/2".
From 1903 to 1906 Walter Eckersall led the University of Chicago football team to a 31-4-2 record through the execution of brilliant strategy, dropkicking, punting, blocking, and tackling.
Competing in the standing high jump, standing long jump, and standing triple jump, Ray Ewry won a total often Olympic gold medals from 1900 to 1908.
From 1897 to 1909 John Flanagan dominated the hammer throw, winning seven Amateur Athletic Union titles and three Olympic gold medals and setting eight world records, with a lifetime best...
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Kentucky Derby, Horse Racing—Lieutenant Gibson (Jimmy Boland, jockey)
Collegiate Football National Champion—Yale University, 12-0
U.S.G.A. Amateur Championship—Walter J. Travis
U.S.G.A. Open Championship—Harry Vardon
U.S.G.A. Women's Amateur Championship—Frances C. Griscom
U.S. Lawn Tennis Association Men's Singles Championship—Malcolm D. Whitman
U.S. Lawn Tennis Association Women's Singles Championship—Myrtle McTeer
Kentucky Derby, Horse Racing—His Eminence (Jimmy Winkfield, jockey)
Collegiate Football National Champion—University of Michigan 11-0
U.S.G.A. Amateur Championship—Walter J. Travis
U.S.G.A. Open Championship—Willie Anderson
U.S.G.A. Women's Amateur Championship—Genevieve Hecker
U.S. Lawn Tennis Association Men's Singles Championship—William A. Larned
U.S. Lawn Tennis Association Women's Singles Championship—Elisabeth H. Moore
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Louis R. Browning, 44, outfielder who played from 1882 to 1894 in the American Association, principally for Louisville, compiling the fourth highest lifetime batting average (.355) in baseball history, 10 September 1905.
Charles G. Buffington, 46, one of baseball's premier pitchers who from 1882 to 1892 won 231 games against 151 losses, with seven 20-win seasons and a 2.96 ERA, 23 September 1907.
Henry Chadwick, 83, journalist and promoter of baseball who popularized the British origins of baseball, 20 April 1908.
John Gibson Clarkson, 48, pitcher principally for the Chicago White Sox and the Boston Beaneaters from 1884 to 1887, 326-177 with a 2.81 ERA, 4 February 1909.
Edward James Delahanty, 36, played from 1887 to 1903 for Philadelphia of the National League, Cleveland of the Player's League, and Washington of the American League and compiled history's seventh best lifetime batting average (.346), 2 July 1903.
Frederick C. Dunlap, 43, second baseman, 1 December 1902.
William Buckingham Ewing, 47, catcher principally for the New York Giants, recognized as the first to crouch behind home plate, 20 October 1906.
J. Malcolm Forbes, 59, successful thoroughbred race-horse breeder and yachtsman who won the...
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Adrian C. Anson, A Ball Players Career (Chicago: Era, 1900);
Ralph Henry Barbour, For the Honor of the School: A Story of School Life and Interscholastic Sport (New York: Appleton, 1900);
Senda Berenson, Line Basket Ball or Basketball for Women (New York: American Sports, 1901);
Samuel Crowther and Arthur Ruhl, Rowing and Track Athletics (New York: Macmillan, 1905);
Michael Donovan, The Roosevelt I Knew: Ten Years of Boxing with the President—and Other Memories of Famous Fighting Men (New York: B. W. Dodge, 1909);
Charles Dryden, The Champion Athletics (Philadelphia, 1905);
Harry Ellard, Baseball in Cincinnati: A History (Cincinnati, Ohio: Johnson & Hardin, 1907);
E. J. Giannini, Rowing (New York: American Sports, 1909);
Luther Halsey Gulick, Physical Education for Muscular Exercise (Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, 1904);
George T. Hepbron, How to Play Basketball (New York: American Sports, 1904);
Lucille Eaton Hill, Athletic and Out-Door Sports for Women (New York: Macmillan, 1903);
Felix Klien, In the Land of the Strenuous Life (Chicago: McClurg, 1905);...
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Important Events in Sports, 1900–1909
- On January 29, Byron Bancroft "Ban" Johnson regroups the former minor Western League into the American League in Chicago. It consists of Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Milwaukee, and Minneapolis. The new league quickly becomes a threat to the dominant National League.
- On April 19, James J. Caffrey of Hamilton, Ontario, wins the fourth annual Boston Marathon with a time of 2:39:44.0.
- On May 3, Jimmy Boland rides Lieutenant Gibson to victory in the twenty-sixth annual Kentucky Derby.
- From May 20 to October 28, Paris hosts the Summer Olympic Games, called the International Meeting of Physical Training and Sport, as an adjunct to the Paris Exhibition. The United States wins twenty gold medals and France wins twenty-nine gold metals.
- From June 12 to June 15, the first Grand American Championship for trap shooting is held in New York. Rollo O. "Pop" Heikes of Dayton, Ohio wins.
- From August 8 to August 10, in the first Davis Cup Challenge tennis tournament the United States defeats Great Britain three matches to none.
- On October 5, Harry Vardon of Great Britain wins the sixth annual U.S Open Golf Tournament held at the Chicago Golf Club.
- From January 8 to January 11,...
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