"Architecture and the People"
By: Louis H. Gibson
Source: Gibson, Louis H. "Architecture and the People." The New England Magazine 24, no. 1, March 1898, 21–26. Available online at http://library5.library.cornell.edu/moa (accessed February 22, 2003).
About the Author: Louis H. Gibson was an architect, author, and architectural critic. His work appeared in journals of the time, and he wrote two books on residential architecture.
"Gage Building, Exterior, Chicago,
IL"; "Babson House, Exterior,
By: Louis H. Sullivan
Date: 1902; 1910
Source: Sullivan, Louis H. "Gage Building Exterior, Chicago, IL"; "Babson House, Exterior, Riverside, IL." American Landscape and Architectural Design, 1850–1920. American Memory digital primary source collection, Library of Congress. Available online at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award97/mhsdhtml/aladhome.html; website home page:
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"Up-to-Date Bathing Requisites"
By: Butterick Publishing Company
Source: Butterick Publishing Company. "Up-to-Date Bathing Requisites." The Delineator, May 1900, 727–728.
About the Author: The Butterick Publishing Company was founded by Ebeneezer Butterick as a means of marketing the paper garment patterns he had begun producing in 1863. He introduced the company's first fashion magazine, Ladies Quarterly of Broadway Fashions, in 1867, and The Delineator in 1873. The latter continued in production until 1937, rapidly moving beyond a pattern marketing device to providing instruction, advice, advertisements, and, of course, paper patterns to order.
It required most of a century, from the early 1800s, before swimming became an acceptable diversion and exercise for women. During much of that time, women, men, and children increasingly spent time in what many regarded as a healthful occupation—taking in the sea air. But for the majority of seaside visitors, this meant little more than walking along the beach. When women did actually come in direct contact with water, it was usually just by wading, and attire was designed to keep the body completely covered and untouched by sun. Bathing attire recommended by...
(The entire section is 962 words.)
Works of Frank Lloyd Wright
"Hickox House Plans, Elevations, Kankakee, IL"; "Hickox House, Exterior, Kankakee, IL"
By: Frank Lloyd Wright
Source: Wright, Frank Lloyd. "Hickox House Plans, Elevations, Kankakee, IL"; "Hickox House, Exterior, Kankakee, IL." American Landscape and Architectural Design, 1850–1920. American Memory digital primary source collection, Library of Congress. Available online at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award97/mhsdhtml/aladhome.html; website home page: http://memory.loc.gov (accessed April 8, 2003).
By: Frank Lloyd Wright
Date: c. 1903
Source: Wright, Frank Lloyd. Easy chair. c. 1903. In the Unified Vision collection, Minneapolis Institute of Arts. Available online at http://www.artsmia.org/unified-vision/collection/object-det... ; website home page: http://www.artsmia.org (accessed April 8, 2003)....
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"Vase"; "Bowl Footed, Iridescent Blue"
Works of art
By: Louis Comfort Tiffany
Source: Tiffany, Louis Comfort. "Vase, circa 1902." Number 1989.36.16; "Bowl Footed, Iridescent Blue, circa 1901." Number 1989.36.12. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. Available online at http://www.thinker.org (accessed February 22, 2003).
"Tiffany Mansion Living Room"
By: Louis Comfort Tiffany
Date: c. 1924
Source: Tiffany, Louis Comfort. "Tiffany Mansion Living Room." Built in America: Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record, 1933–Present. American Memory digital primary source collection, Library of Congress. Available online at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/hhhtml/hhhome.html; website home page: http://memory.loc.gov (accessed February 22, 2003).
About the Artist: Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848–1933) is best remembered for his invention of stunning iridescent decorative glass objects in the Art Nouveau style and for stained glass...
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Clothing the American Woman
"Effective Street Gowns"; "Women's Gowns"
By: Butterick Publishing Company
Date: 1900; 1906
Source: The Delineator, May 1900, 591; April 1906, 623.
About the Organization: Butterick Publishing Company grew out of Ebeneezer Butterick's success in creating paper dress patterns that women could order by mail as well as buy in some mercantile stores. Inspired by his wife's difficulty in creating patterns in a variety of sizes, he undertook the task of making a pattern in multiple sizes, eventually extending the concept to include men's and children's clothing. The company published The Delineator between the years 1873–1937.
"Singer Bros. Winter Catalogue 1905–1906"
By: Singer Brothers Company
Source: Singer Brothers Company. "Singer Bros. Winter Catalogue 1905–1906." St. Louis: Singer Brothers Company, 1905, 11. Reproduced in John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History. Emergence of Advertising in America: Advertising Ephemera. Available online at
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Martha Jane Mixon Hearn Diaries
By: Martha Jane Mixon Hearn
Source: Hearn, Martha. Martha Jane Mixon Hearn Diaries 1873-1909 in David Russell Hearn and Family Papers. Jackson, Mississippi: Mississippi Department of Archives and History. Z/1839.000/S, Box 4.
About the Author: Martha Jane Mixon Hearn (1837–1915) was an upper middle class southern woman who lived an un-remarkable life typical of many in her social class. Martha, her husband, and their four children lived and farmed near Madison Station in Madison County, Mississippi. In addition to farming, the family owned and operated a mill. Unlike most women in her social class, Martha kept a detailed diary, chronicling the work involved in producing and maintaining the family's clothing and household textiles.
Directions for Making Soap
By: Mary Ann Zahm
Date: c. 1905
Source: Zahm, Mary Ann. Directions for Making Soap. c. 1905. An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera, American Memory digital primary source collection, Library of Congress. Available online at
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Art Pottery in the New Century
"Rookwood Is the Best Gift"
By: Rookwood Pottery Company
Source: "Rookwood Is the Best Gift." In Emergence of Advertising in America: J. Walter Thompson House Ads, Duke University Digital Scriptorium. Available online at http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/cgi-bin/nph-dweb/dynaweb/ea... ; website home page: http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/eaa/index.html (accessed February 14, 2003).
About the Artist: The Rookwood Pottery Company (1880–1967) was established by Maria Longworth Nichols in Cincinnati, Ohio, and would become the leader in the American art pottery movement before a decline in quality and subsequent bankruptcy in 1941.
"Van Briggle Art Pottery"
Work of art
By: Van Briggle Art Pottery; H.S. Poley
Source: Van Briggle Art Pottery; H.S. Poley. "Van Briggle Art Pottery." History of the American West, 1860–1920: Photographs from the Collection of the Denver Public Library. American Memory digital primary...
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The Gibson Girl
"The Weaker Sex II" and "Studies in Expression at a Fashionable Funeral"
By: Charles Dana Gibson
Source: Gibson, Charles Dana. "The Weaker Sex II." Collier's Weekly, July 4, 1903, 12–13; "Studies in Expression at a Fashionable Funeral." Life, October 22, 1903, 388–389.
About the Artist: Charles Dana Gibson (1867–1944) was born in Roxbury, Massachusetts. He attended the Arts Students League in Manhattan for two years and then began the initially slow process of achieving commercial success. He sold his first pen and ink drawing in 1886 to the editor of Life magazine. By 1890, Gibson was working for all the major publications in New York. He remains famous today for his creation of the fashionable Gibson Girl.
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Photographs of Poor Miners
"A Young Apprentice and His Papa," "Some of Our Future Citizens," and "Economy in a Mining Town"
By: Peter Roberts
Source: Roberts, Peter. Originally published in Anthracite Coal Communities. New York: MacMillan Company, 1904. Available online at Coal Mining in the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, ; website home page: http://www.history.ohio-state.edu/web.htm (accessed February 22, 2003).
About the Photographer: Peter Roberts (1859–1932) studied the anthracite coal community from the standpoint of both economics and social welfare. Considered an expert, he was often quoted and referred to in discussions of coal mining, particularly as related to the outcomes of mining practices and the impact on workers. An Episcopalian minister, Roberts firmly believed that many immigrants were mentally inferior to Americans and posed a potential threat to a unified citizenry.
The opening years of the twentieth century saw immense industrial and economic growth, but with a gravely disproportionate division of that wealth. At the upper ends of the social and economic strata, practical buying power was essentially...
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"Twenty-sixth Anniversary of the Standard Underwear of the World"
Catalog (text and images)
By: Gustave Jaeger
Source: Jaeger, Gustave. "Twenty-sixth Anniversary of the Standard Underwear of the World." New York: Dr. Jaeger's Sanitary Woolen System Co., 1909. Emergence of Advertising: Advertising Ephemera. Available online at http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/cgi-bin/nphdweb/dynaweb/eaa... ; website home page: http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/(accessed February 22, 2003).
About the Author: Dr. Gustav Jaeger was born in Germany, then immigrated to the United States. Emigration records from Germany show a Gustav Ludwig Jaeger, born in 1835, applying for passage to North America in 1855. Jaeger eventually founded a company for his products and marketed them worldwide. He exhibited knitted undergarments as early as 1884 at the International Health Exhibition in Kensington, England, and published a book called Rational Clothing in 1880.
Dress reform in the United States began as part of the feminist movement and only later acquired aspects that related more to health than to equality. By...
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"Houses Unique in Interest"
By: Alice M. Kellogg
Source: Kellogg, Alice M. "Houses Unique in Interest." The Delineator, April 1906, 696–697.
About the Author: Alice M. Kellogg (1862–1911) was an author of occasional pieces such as this one in The Delineator. She wrote about matters of household decoration and taste, giving advice to women on fashion in the home, much as other writers advised about clothing.
Women's magazines of the day provided advice on every aspect of living, from what to wear to parenting and home decorating advice. Kellogg's article is similar to many that filled these magazines. Their audience could be found in the rising middle classes—those who could afford to purchase or build new homes and decorate them as well. The heavy, ornately decorated, often stuffy Victorian interiors were going out of style, to be replaced by simpler styles that could be more easily mass-produced and yet retain a reasonable quality of workmanship and materials. The bungalows represented a move away from crowded city interiors to somewhat more spacious urban or even suburban lots. In their style and details, they also represent numerous socio-demographic changes as well as an alteration in the national...
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Changes in Textiles and Advertising
By: A.G. Hyde & Sons
Source: A.G. Hyde & Sons. "Heatherbloom Petticoats." The Delineator, April 1908, 631.
"Here Is the Truth About Dyes"
By: Wells & Richardson Co.
Source: Wells & Richardson Co. "Here Is the Truth About Dyes." The Delineator, April 1906, 740.
The advertisement for Diamond dyes shows the extent to which the synthetic dyeing industry had progressed from the first dye introduction in 1856. Up until that point, all textile colorants were derived from natural products (plant, animal, or mineral sources) and required fairly extensive preparations to achieve inconsistent results. By the time of this ad's publication in 1906, the entire process of making and using textile dyes had changed, with the result that the consuming public required some education in the use of the new products. The use of natural dyes had a long cultural and technical history, with specific colors, natural sources, and processes associated with specific fibers among the limited number...
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"San Francisco Graft Trial, 1907–1908"
Source: Image numbers 02613, 02614, and 02617. "San Francisco Graft Trial, 1907–1908. BANK PIC 1905.0261-PIC, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley." Online Archive of California. Available online at http://findaid.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/tf7p30102q; website home page: http://www.oac.cdlib.org/ (accessed February 22, 2003).
For most of history, there was almost equal elaboration of costume for men and women, but that changed around the 1840s. Although the reasons for this change are complex and cannot be attributed to a single event, they coincided with industrialization and the expansion of a middle class. Income and productivity, not aristocracy, was the social delineator. The businessman of the industrial society was not a man of land and leisure; he worked and provided for his family. The more subdued colors, plainer and more comfortable cut, and reduced ornamentation spoke of the seriousness with which businessmen regarded this new way of organizing society. The virtues of the businessman—reliability, integrity, self-control—were reflected in his attire. The successful businessman left ostentation in dress to...
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Sears Modern Homes Catalogues
"Modern Home No. 125"; "Modern Home No. 144"
By: Sears, Roebuck and Company
Date: 1908; 1909
Source: Sears, Roebuck and Company. 1908 Modern Homes Catalogue. Chicago: 1908; 54. Sears, Roebuck and Company. 1909 Modern Homes Catalogue. Chicago: 1909, 26.
About the Company: Sears, Roebuck and Company was founded in 1893, a partnership between Richard Sears and Alvah Roebuck. The firm quickly became a household name, delivering goods at lower prices than local stores and making a consistent style and quality of goods available across America. When the new Sears, Roebuck and Company building opened on Chicago's south side in 1906, it was the largest business building at that time in the world.
During the decade that Sears and other purveyors introduced houses from kits, ownership of automobiles increased from about eight thousand to over four hundred sixty thousand, ushering in the birth of the suburb. Calls for a new American architecture had been answered by Louis Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright, and many of their followers, and were now being reinterpreted on a more frugal and simplified scale to meet the needs of urban and rural members of the growing middle class....
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