1306 (The People's Chronology)
The murder of nobleman John "the Red" Comyn, earl of Arundel, in the Franciscan church of the Minorite Fathers at Dumfries February 10 begins a Scottish rebellion against England (see 1305). Comyn was a nephew of the former king John de Balliol and a contender for Scotland's throne; whether he was killed by the eighth Robert de Bruce, earl of Carrick, now 31, or by one of his followers will remain an open question, but Robert rushes to Scone, has himself crowned March 25 by John Comyn's widow, Isabel, countess of Buchan, and is condemned as a traitor. England's Edward I sends an army to crush the rebellion; the English triumph June 19 at the Battle of Methven, near Perth; and Robert is defeated August 11 at Dalry, near Tyndrum, by the lord of Argyll, a kinsman of the Comyn family. Robert's wife and many of his supporters are captured, three of his brothers are executed, and Robert goes into hiding on the island of Rathlin near the north Irish coast, where (according to legend) he will regain hope after observing a spider succeed after repeated failure in weaving its web (see 1307).
Sweden has another civil war as the brothers of Birger III Magnusson challenge his sovereignty (see 1290). The insurgency will continue until 1310 (see 1318).
The Premyslid dynasty that has ruled Bohemia since 1198 ends with the assassination of Wenceslas III at Olomouc, Moravia, August 4 at age 16 after a 1-year reign. Wenceslas has been raising an army and was en route to be crowned king of Poland, where he is succeeded by the diminutive former king Wladyslaw Lokietek of Great Poland, who has gained papal support. Now 46, Wladyslaw will unite the principalities of Little and Great Poland (see coronation, 1320). The Holy Roman Emperor Albrecht I gives the Bohemian crown to his son Rudolf, but the Bohemians will not accept Rudolf and an interregnum begins that will continue until 1310.
Rhodes is purchased from Genoa by the military order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem founded in 1113 (see 1248). The Knights will defend the island until 1522.
Only the tiniest fraction of the world's energy comes from sources other than manpower, animal power, and solar sources that include wood and windmills, but use of coal is increasing (see 1615).
France arrests her Jews on orders from Philippe IV, strips them of their possessions, and expels them (see 1269). The expulsion order averts a schism among Jewish communities in France and Spain that has threatened since the controversial decree issued last year by Barcelona's rabbi Solomon ben Abraham Adret. The anti-rationalist Astruc of Lunel settles at Perpignan, the mainland capital of the kingdom of Majorca, and disappears from history.
England whips and expels some 10,000 Jews who have remained since Edward I's expulsion order of 1290 (see Cromwell, 1657).
Painting: The Lamentation by Giotto di Bondone for Padua's Arena Chapel.
London authorities put a man on trial for burning coal in the city (see 1285). Found guilty, he is executed (see energy, 1589).