1201 (The People's Chronology)
The Byzantine prince Alexius Comnenus journeys to the court of the Bavarian count Palatine Otto von Wittelsbach and persuades him to divert the route of the Fourth Crusade to Constantinople with a view to restoring his father, Isaac II Angelus, to power (see 1202).
The Venetian doge Enrico Dandolo concludes treaties with the Bavarian count Palatine Otto von Wittelsbach and with the king of Armenia.
The Turkish general Ikhtiar-ud-Din Bakhtiar Khilji seizes Nadia from the Sena king Lakshmana, who leaves for eastern Bengal (see 1206).
Europe's commercial capital is Venice, located midway between the East and the cities of Europe. Venice's Lido and marshes protect it from invaders, and its position gives it natural access via the Adriatic to both the eastern and western Mediterranean, with direct connections via the Po and Adige valleys to the rich north Italian cities of Brescia, Ferrara, Mantua, Milan, Padua, and Verona. The city has links via eastern Alpine passes to the cities of southern Germany and via western Alpine passes to Constance, Geneva, Lucerne, and Zürich, and while Genoa's commercial ventures receive little official encouragement, Venice's doge and senate are eager to support commercial interests.
The St. Gotthard Pass opens through the Swiss Alps between the cantons of Uri and Ticino (see railroad, 1882).
The button and button hole will be invented by an individual in northern Europe in this century. Buttons will be made initially of bone, animal horn, and wood. The ancient Romans wore buttons for decoration, but no one heretofore has used buttons to hold garments together.