1196 (The People's Chronology)
The Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich VI persuades the diet meeting at Würzburg in April to recognize his 2-year-old son Friedrich as king of the Romans, but opposition from Adolph, archbishop of Cologne, and others thwarts the will of the diet.
Sweden's king Knut dies after a 31-year reign and is succeeded by his son, who will reign until 1208 as Sverker II.
Norway's Rebellion of the Crosiers begins as the dissident bishop of Kristiania (Oslo) Nicholas Arnesson joins forces with the exiled Norwegian archbishop Erik Ivarsson and returns to the country with a fleet to depose Sverrir Sigurdsson, whose administrative and ecclesiastical reforms have angered not only the Church but many secular leaders (see 1194). Nicholas will gain control over much of eastern Norway and win the support of the peasantry (see 1198).
Hungary's Arpád king Belá III dies after a 23-year reign in which he has helped the former Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelus against the Bulgarians. Having made his court one of the most brilliant in Europe and made his monarchy hereditary, Belá is succeeded by his son Emeric, who will reign until 1204 but whose brother András, 21, will challenge his position.
Bulgarian forces gain a decisive victory over the Byzantines, ending the hostilities that have continued intermittently since 1185, but czar Asen I is killed by one of his boyars after a 10-year reign in which he has restored the Bulgarian nation (see 1187). His assassin, Ivanko, seizes power at Turnovo but is soon obliged to seek refuge at Constantinople. Asen's brother ascends the throne as Peter II (but see 1197).
The Serbian grand chieftain Stefan Nemanja dies after a 27-year rule and is succeeded by his son, also Stefan (see 1217).
Aragon's Alfonso II dies at Perpignan, Roussilon, at age 44 (approximate), leaving a will that divides his realm (Aragon thus loses Provence). Alfonso is succeeded by his 22-year-old son, who will reign until his death in 1213 as Pedro II.