1177 (The People's Chronology)
Heinrich II Jasomirgott, duke of Austria, dies at Vienna January 13 at age 62 after a 36-year reign, originally as margrave.
Friedrich I Barbarossa and Pope Alexander III sign the Treaty of Venice in August to begin a 6-year period of peace between the Lombard League and the Holy Roman Emperor (see 1176).
England's Henry II and France's Louis VII sign the Treaty of Ivry; Pope Alexander III has intervened to bring the two monarchs to terms. Henry appoints Hugh de Lacy, 1st lord of Meath, procurator-general of Ireland (but see 1181).
Greater Poland's magnates drive out their despotic duke Mieszko III Stary from Kraków and replace him after a brutal 4-year reign with his 39-year-old brother, who becomes the principal duke of Poland and will reign with mixed success until 1194 as Casimir II (see 1180).
Norwegians in the Trondheim region proclaim Birchleg leader Sverrir Sigurdsson, 28, their king. A former priest from the Faroes Islands whose mother told him that his father was the former king Sigurd II, the young man left for the mainland 3 years ago to claim the throne and has demonstrated his skill as a military leader against the forces of Magnus V Erlingsson, whom he will soundly defeat in 1179 (see 1184).
The Khmer capital Angkor Wat falls to Champa invaders, who will hold it for 4 years.
Belfast is founded in northern Ireland as John de Courcy builds a castle to command a ford near the mouth of the Lagan River.
The antipope Calistus (or Calixtus) III refuses to yield his throne at Rome to Pope Alexander III even after the conclusion of the Peace of Venice (see 1176; 1177).