1176 (The People's Chronology)
Richard de Clare (Richard FitzGilbert), 2nd earl of Pembroke, dies at Dublin April 20 at age 45, having helped Henry II suppress a rebellion in Normandy. Known as "Strongbow," he has been given custody of Wexford, Waterford, and Dublin, but the king has obliged Pembroke to acknowledge royal authority over his conquests in Leinster in order to keep him from establishing himself as an independent ruler.
The Battle of Legnano May 29 gives the infantry of the 9-year-old Lombard League a victory over the feudal cavalry of the Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa, who sustains a wound so serious that he is thought for a while to be dead (see 1174; 1177).
The Battle of Myriocephalon in September ends in victory for a Seljuk Turkish army in Phrygia over the Byzantine forces of Manuel I Comnenus, ending Byzantine hope of ousting the Turks from Anatolia. The Turks have ravaged the countryside while heavy wagons carrying Byzantine siege machinery and supplies crawled up into the Phrygian mountains. Qilich Arslan has tried to arrange a peace treaty, but Manuel has heeded the counsel of blood-thirsty younger princes rather than that of his experienced generals and sent a large advance party through the Tzibritze Pass. Feigning a retreat, the Turks have moved into the hills and then charged down the narrow defile, falling upon the main body of Manuel's army; he flees in panic, his army scatters, and the Turks win the day.
The Egyptian sultan Saladin conquers Syria and mounts a campaign to drive the Christians from the kingdom of Jerusalem (see 1174; 1183).
Herat in western Afghanistan falls to the forces of Ghiyas-ud-Din, sultan of Ghur (see 1173).
The Treaty of Anagni ends the schism between Pope Alexander III and the antipope Calistus III; Alexander is recognized as the true pope, Calistus is compensated with an abbacy, but Calistus refuses to accept the treaty (see 1177).
Welsh ecclesiastic Walter Map, 36, organizes legends of King Arthur and his knights of the round table at Camelot (see 1170). Map has journeyed abroad on foreign missions.
The Eisteddfod festival of Welsh music, poetry, and drama at Cardigan Castle begins an annual competition by bards that will continue at various locations for more than 800 years.
Rabbits are introduced into England as domestic livestock.