1158 (The People's Chronology)
Milan's citizens rebel against Germanic rule; the Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa mounts an army of 100,000 men, leaves in June for a second Italian expedition, crosses the Alps, and lays siege to the city. Its insurgents eventually surrender to his imperial officers (podestas) in northern Italy, and a long struggle begins between Friedrich and the papacy (see 1160).
Castile's Sanchez III dies after a brief reign; his infant son succeeds him and will reign until 1214 as Alfonso VIII.
The Japanese emperor Goshirakawa abdicates after a 3-year reign (see 1156); his 15-year-old son Nijo begins a 7-year reign that will be interrupted briefly next year. Goshirakawa retains power and gives strongman Kiyomori Taira a higher position than Yoshitomo Minamoto, antagonizing Minamoto (see 1159).
Munich (München) is founded by the Bavarian duke Henry the Lion (Heinrich III der Löwe).
Lübeck is founded on the Baltic by a consortium of families who deal in grain, timber, fish, and other commodities. Each family takes a large block of land, builds a house on the best corner lot, and rents the balance to newcomers, while the consortium runs bakeries and operates the town's marketplace (see Hanseatic League, 1241).