1145 (The People's Chronology)
Arnold of Brescia, 45, turns Rome into a republic with a government patterned on that of ancient Rome. A former student of the late Pierre Abelard, he has fought corruption in the clergy and was condemned along with Abelard in 1140 by the Council of Sens (see 1146).
Almohad forces under Abd al-Mumin defeat a Muslim Almoravid army at Tlemcen (see 1125). The first Almoravid ruler Tasfin ben Ali dies; he is succeeded by his son Abu Yaqub Yusuf, who will reign until his own death in 1184; and the Almohads gain support among other Berber groups as revolts on the Iberian Peninsula weaken the hold of Almoravid governors there (see 1147).
The Danube is bridged at Ratisbon by a span begun 10 years ago.
Pope Lucius II dies at Rome February 15, probably of injuries sustained in the fighting last year against the forces of Giordano Pierleoni. He is succeeded after an 11-month reign by Bernard of Pisa, who will reign until 1153 as Eugene III, but the new pope is forced into exile by Arnold of Brescia. He issues a papal bull December 1 approving a new crusade, but he is not allowed to enter Rome until later in December, when the city commune permits him to celebrate Christmas in the city (see 1146).
The Cistercian French ecclesiastic Bernard of Clairvaux travels from his monastic cell in Champagne to Languedoc and tries to intimidate followers of Henry of Lausanne, who has resisted Church Orthodoxy. Now 54 and more influential than any pope, Bernard is feted en route, but when he preaches at the market town of Verfeil northeast of Toulouse his words are drowned out by mounted knights who bang on the church doors and clash their swords together. He goes on, nevertheless, to preach a Second Crusade after Pope Eugene III overcomes his resistance to the idea (see 1146).
The English Cistercian ecclesiastic Hugh de Bolebee founds an abbey at Woburn with 14 monks who arrive from Fountains Abbey to establish a community that will survive until 1234.