1144 (The People's Chronology)
Roger II of Sicily invades papal lands in March to force the new pope Lucius II to accept his truce, but the patrician Giordano Pierleoni, brother of the antipope Anacletus II, leads the Roman populace to proclaim a constitutional republic free of papal authority with regard to civil rule.
Geoffrey de Mandeville, 1st earl of Essex, is mortally wounded by a stray arrow in August while laying siege to Burwell and dies at Mildenhall, Suffolk, September 16. Notorious for his cruelty and lawlessness, the powerful baron is little mourned.
Murcians on the Iberian Peninsula revolt against Almoravid rule and re-establish independence under their leader Abu Jafar ibn Hud, who will unite his kingdom with Valencia (see 1092). Almohads from North Africa will take over the country after 1168, but it will retain an autonomous administrative system (see 1243).
Pope Celestine II dies March 8 after a brief reign and is succeeded March 12 by the Bologna-born Gherardo Cardinal Caccianemici, who leads an unsuccessful assault on the rebel forces of Giordano Pierleoni and will reign until early next year as Lucius II.