1143 (The People's Chronology)
Geoffrey of Anjou, son-in-law of England's late Henry I, becomes duke of Normandy upon news of the death at age 51 last year of his father, Foulkes le Jeune, who was king of Jerusalem for more than 10 years. England's Matilda retires to Normandy, whose rulers have submitted to the earl of Anjou during Stephen's captivity.
Geoffrey de Mandeville, 1st earl of Essex, is arrested at St. Albans on charges of treason against Stephen of Blois. Given his freedom in return for surrendering his offices and castles, he fortifies Ramsey Abbey and uses it as his headquarters as he proceeds to plunder the fenland around Ely, committing numerous atrocities (see 1144).
The German king Conrad III gives Bavaria to his half brother Heinrich Jasomirgott, the Guelph margrave of Austria, who marries Heinrich der Stolze's widow, Gertrude (see 1142). She dies in April, and Heinrich III der Löwe (the Lion) demands that Bavaria be given to him (see 1147).
The Treaty of Zamora arranged by the Vatican obtains Castilian recognition of Portuguese independence (see 1139). Afonso Henriques, now 31, is proclaimed king by the cortes and begins a 42-year reign that founds the Portuguese monarchy and Burgundian dynasty (see 1185).
The Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus (Kalojoannes) dies at age 55 after a 25-year reign. He is succeeded by his son, 23, who will reign until 1180 as Manuel I Comnenus.
Melissande of Jerusalem becomes regent for her son, Baldwin III, 13, upon the death of her husband, Fulke V of Anjou. They are crowned together and she acts as queen (see 1152).
Pope Innocent II dies at his native Rome September 24 after a 13-year reign and is succeeded September 26 by the scholarly Guido Cardinal de Castellis (or di Citta di Castello), a student and friend of the late Peter Abelard. The new pope is consecrated October 3, removes his predecessor's interdict against France's Louis VII, and will reign until next year as Celestine II.