1138 (The People's Chronology)
Swabia's House of Hohenstaufen begins a 130-year domination of the German states as Conrad is chosen German king for a second time March 7 by princes meeting at Coblenz in the presence of the papal legate. Now 45, he is crowned March 13 at Aix-la-Chapelle and will reign until 1152 as Conrad III. The late Lothair III's son-in-law Heinrich der Stolze (the Proud) refuses allegiance to the new king, who claims that it is unlawful for two duchies to be invested in one man. He places Heinrich under the ban in July, deprives him of his Saxon duchy, and soon gives Bavaria to the Franconian margrave of Austria Leopold IV (see 996). Civil war breaks out in both duchies, and a long struggle begins between "Ghibellines" and "Guelphs" (the Hohenstaufens take their name from their Swabian castle Staufen on their estates of Waiblingen, whose name will be corrupted by their Italian supporters into Ghibelline, while the family name Welf of Bavaria's Heinrich will be corrupted into Guelph) (see 1139).
The Battle of the Standard August 22 three miles north of Northallerton, Yorkshire, ends in defeat for Scotland's David I, who has taken advantage of the confusion following the death of Henry I late in 1135 and invaded England in support of his niece Matilda against Stephen of Blois. Thurston, archbishop of York, has rallied the English barons, whose forces number perhaps 8,000 against 10,000 Scotsmen, and they win the day, but although David withdraws he does take possession of Northumberland and makes peace with Stephen, who next year will grant Northumberland as a fief to his son Henry.
Poland's duke Boleslav III (Wry-mouth) dies October 28 at age 53 after a 36-year reign. He has divided his duchy into four or five hereditary provinces and distributed them among his sons, his oldest being the 33-year-old Kraków-born Wladyslaw Wygnaniac, who will reign as high duke until 1146. Greater Poland (which includes the duchy of Kalisz) goes to Boleslav's third oldest, who is still only a boy of 12 but will grow up to be a despot and reign until 1177 as Mieszko III.
The antipope Anacletus II dies and is succeeded by another antipope, who reigns briefly as Victor IV until his own death, leaving Innocent II uncontested.