1128 (The People's Chronology)
The German antiking Conrad is crowned king of Italy at Monza in June (see 1127). He will remain south of the Alps until 1132, when he will return to fight Lothair II (see 1135).
Pope Honorius II invests Sicily's Roger II as duke of Apulia at Benevento in August after failure of his coalition against Roger.
Portugal's Afonso Henriques assumes authority at age 19, repudiates his mother, Teresa's, agreement to accept Castilian domination, defeats Castile and León's Alfonso VII at the Battle of São Mamede, and drives his mother into exile (see 1112; 1139).
Irish-born adventurer Harald Gille (or Gilchrist), 25, arrives in Norway, claiming to be a son of the late Magnus III Barefoot, who was killed while fighting in Ireland 25 years ago. He passes an ordeal of fire (walking over hot plowshares) and gains recognition as a brother from Norway's reigning king Sigurd I Magnusson, but only on condition that Harald not assert sovereignty during Sigurd's lifetime or that of Sigurd's son Magnus IV (see 1130).
A monk at Worcester records the sighting of sunspots December 8 (see 800 B.C.). "From morning to evening appeared something like two black circles within the disk of the Sun, the one in the upper part being bigger, the other in the lower part small," writes John of Worcester, and his drawing will survive as the oldest depiction of the phenomenon (see Harriot, 1609; solar prominences, 1185).
The Abbey of Holyrood founded by Scotland's David I will survive for centuries.
Pope Honorius II recognizes and confirms the 8-year-old order of the Knights Templar.
Cistercian monks from Normandy settle in England and begin an extensive program of swamp reclamation, agricultural improvement, and stock breeding (see 1098). The Cistercians live austerely, depend for their income entirely on the land (although they will come to control France's iron mines and develop labor-saving devices in their monasteries), and will have a salutary effect in improving English and European horse and cattle breeds and raising the standards of agriculture (see real estate [Tintern Abbey], 1131).