1125 (The People's Chronology)
The Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich V dies at Utrecht May 23 at age 44 after leading an expedition against France's Louis VI and then against the citizens of Worms. Heinrich is buried in Speyer Cathedral; the electors reject the hereditary principle and choose Lothair, duke of Saxony, now 55, as king at Mainz August 30. Crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle September 13, Lothair has papal support but he asks Friederich II of Hohenstaufen, duke of Swabia, to restore to the crown the estates that he has inherited from his late uncle. Heinrich V. Friederich refuses; he is placed under the ban; and by year's end Heinrich's nephews Friederich of Swabia and Conrad of Franconia are in revolt against the new emperor (see 1127).
The grand prince of Kiev Vladimir II Monomakh dies outside Kiev May 19 at age 71 after a 12-year reign in which (and prior to which) he has by his own account participated in more than 80 military campaigns and killed 200 Polovotsy princes. The city of Vladimir that he has founded on the Klyazma River will replace Kiev as the seat of the grand prince by the end of the century. Vladimir is succeeded by his son Yuri, who is known as Yuri Dolguruki (meaning "long arms"). He makes Suzdal his northern capital in place of Rostov and will establish a protective outpost for his Rostov-Suzdal principality on the banks of the Moskva River between the Volga and the Oka (see Moscow, 1147).
Sweden's Ingold II loses his throne after a 20-year reign to Magnus the Strong (Magnus den Starke Nilsson), 19. A son of Denmark's king Niels Magnusson, he will reign until his death in 1130 as the House of Yngling's last monarch.
Venetian forces pillage Rhodes, occupy Chios, and ravage Samos and Lesbos.
The Islamic Berber sect known as the Almohads begins to conquer what later will be Morocco; originally from the Atlas Mountains. Their leader Ibn Tumart has been inspired by the hadj, on which he studied at Baghdad, Cairo, and Jerusalem; acquainted himself with all the current schools of Islamic thinking; and found the ideas of the late al-Ghazali most to his liking (see 1145).
China's Northern Song (Sung) dynasty emperor Huizong (Hui Tsung) abdicates at age 43 after a 24-year reign in which he has left politics to his court eunuchs, promoted Daoism, comforted himself with love affairs, built an elaborate palace garden, and founded an Imperial Academy of Painting (he is himself an able painter and calligrapher). Hui is succeeded by one of his sons, who will reign for less than 2 years as the emperor Qinzong (Chin-tsung) (see 1127).