1123 (The People's Chronology)
The Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus defeats Serb forces in the Balkans as other peoples of southeast Europe continue efforts to free themselves from Byzantine rule.
The Japanese emperor Toba abdicates at age 20 after a 16-year reign and is succeeded by his 4-year-old son Akihito, who will reign until 1141 as the emperor Sutoku, but Toba retains control of the government and the former emperor Shirakawa remains the power behind the throne.
London's Smithfield meat market has its origin in the priory founded beside the "Smooth" field just outside the city's walls. The field will soon be the scene of St. Bartholomew's Fair, where drapers and clothiers will exchange goods and where a weekly horsemarket will be held (see 1639).
Pope Callistus (or Calixtus) II convenes the Third Lateran Council, which confirms the Concordat of Worms, forbidding marriage of priests and the practice of simony.
Japan's former emperor Shirakawa imposes a strict Buddhist law against killing any living thing (including fish, poultry, livestock, game, and game birds).