1049 (The People's Chronology)
The Alsatian bishop Bruno, Graf von Egisheim und Dagsburg, is enthroned as pope February 12 and will reign until 1054 as Leo IX (see 1048). Consecrated a bishop at age 25, he has worked zealously to raise moral standards in his diocese and is determined to root out what he considers abuses, e.g. simony (buying and selling of Church offices), investiture (conferment of ecclesiastical offices by lay rulers), and concubinage (clerical marriage). To that end, he promptly convenes a council at which he demands the resignation of every clergyman who has purchased his office.