1045 (The People's Chronology)
The late Olaf II's half brother Harald Sigurdsson returns to his native Norway after a 15-year sojourn in Kiev, Constantinopole, and Novgorod. Now 29, he gains support from opponents of his nephew Magnus Olafsson (see 1047).
The Byzantine emperor Constantine IX Monomachus seizes the Armenian capital of Ani despite resistance from the Bagratid king Gagik II (but see 1048).
The Japanese emperor Gozaku dies at age 36 after a 9-year reign and is succeeded by his 16-year-old son, who will reign until 1068 as the emperor Goreizei.
Critics of the licentious Pope Benedict IX force him to flee the city in January, Bishop Giovanni di Sabina is elected January 20 to replace him. The new pope (or antipope) reigns until February 10 as Sylvester III but is then expelled by supporters of Benedict, who is persuaded by the archpriest Giovanni Graziano to abdicate in order to avoid a scandal and is elected pope himself May 5. Sylvester recognizes him as the true pope and he will reign until next year as Gregory VI (but see 1046).