1044 (The People's Chronology)
Hungary's Peter Orseolo is restored by the German king Heinrich III, who brings Hungary under German control after gaining a great victory in July at Menfo (but see 1047).
Oguz Turkish tribes invading northern Mesopotamia from Persia meet with defeat in a great battle fought northwest of Mosul with Bedouin Arabs, but the Buyid ruler Jalal ad-Dawlah dies after a 19-year reign in which poverty has forced him to dismiss his servants and release his horses because he could no longer afford to feed them.
The death of Egypt's Fatimid vizier Ali bin Ahmad Jarjarai gives the caliph al-Mustansir's mother a chance to seize power (see 1036). Originally a Sudanese slave girl, she brings in large numbers of Sudanese to counter Ottoman influence but has little support, her ascension destabilizes the army, and the viziers whom she appoints will prove inept (see 1050).
Burma has her beginnings in the kingdom of Pagan founded in Southeast Asia. The Mons and the Burmese end their rivalry and join together after generations of vying for control of the region.
Korea completes a defense system that consists largely of a great wall across the northern part of the peninsula to keep out Mongol and Turkish raiders.