1031 (The People's Chronology)
France's Capetian king Robert II (the Pious) dies at Melun July 20 at age 61 (approximate) after a short war in which he has been defeated by his younger sons. He has brought Burgundy into his realm during his 44-year reign. His 23-year-old son by Constance of Aquitaine has ruled with him since 1027 and will reign until 1060 as Henri I.
The caliph of Córdoba Hisham III dies after a 4-year reign, ending the Umayyad caliphate that has ruled since 756 and removing for a time the Muslim threat to Spain's Christian rulers. The caliphate is abolished along with any semblance of a centralized political structure as dozens of petty states arise on the Iberian Peninsula. Córdoba's council proclaims the city-state a republic and elects aristocrat Abu al-Hazm Jahwar ibn Jahwar its sovereign; he will rule until his death in 1043.
The Japanese samurai leader Tadatsune Taira surrenders to imperial forces led by Yorinobu Minamoto, who makes the Taira family subordinate to his own in the Kanto region (see 1027).