1013 (The People's Chronology)
The Danes conquer England under the leadership of Sweyn I Forkbeard, who gains recognition as king in late December. Ethelred (Aethelred) II takes refuge in Normandy but will return early next year.
Leinster's king Mael Morda allies himself with the Dublin Vikings in a rebellion against the rule of Munsterman Brian Boru, who has made himself king of all Ireland. The Dubliners enlist support from the earl of Orkney, and Viking contingents from as far away as Iceland and Normandy prepare to embark in longships to help overthrow Brian (see Battle of Clontarf, 1014).
The Ummayad caliph Hisham II of Córdoba dies after a reign that began in 976 but was interrupted between 1009 and 1010 as Umayyad power declined in Spain. He is succeeded by Suleiman al-Mustain, who was installed as caliph by the Berbers from 1009 to 1010 and will reign until 1016. The new caliph al-Mustain rewards the Berber Ali ibn Hammud for helping him to regain his throne by giving him Sabtah; he gives Algeciras, Asilah, and Tangier to Ali's brother al-Qasim, but Hisham's death precipitates civil war (see 1016).