This paper will provide an overview of the necessary qualities of effective management and discuss how adhering to core values and maintaining standards of ethical conduct are necessary to achieve managerial leadership. There are certain necessary qualities for effective management. Managers need to have strong organization skills, the ability to communicate, and the capacity to make decisions. These skills are essential for effective management whether one is managing a small business, a division within a company, or has oversight responsibility for a group in any other work environment. However, truly successful managing requires a business owner or a manager to go beyond these basic skill sets in order to set a higher standard of quality. In order to accomplish this, managers need to lead. Moreover, managerial leadership requires that a manager adhere to certain core values and standards of ethical conduct.
Keywords Core Values; Ethical Conduct; Leadership Traits; Management; Managerial Leadership; Organizational Purpose; Qualitative Results; Quantitative Results
Management: Managerial Leadership
Regardless of the type of business or work situation, a successful enterprise requires effective management. There are certain basic skill sets that managers must have in order to be effective.
- First, a manager must be highly organized. This means that they need to manage their time efficiently, prioritize their responsibilities and assume responsibility for the workflow of the group by delegating expediently.
- In order to delegate, a manager must also be able to communicate effectively. Successful communication requires a manager to speak and write clearly as well as to listen intently. In fact, listening is probably one of the more important abilities a manager must have to communicate effectively. This is because managers need to have a clear understanding of the group and what people can and cannot do. The best managers are those that recognize people's capabilities so that they delegate responsibilities effectively. In short, employees should be put into positions where they are most likely to fulfill their duties successfully. By having strong communication skills, a manager will be able to delegate, and to act decisively (Ramona, Emanoil & Lucia, 2012).
- Being able to make decisions, whether popular or unpopular, also lends itself to a successful leadership situation.
Essentially, having a successful business, agency or other enterprise requires having effective managers. Effective managers need to have strong organizational, communication and decision-making skills. More than this, successful managers must be capable of leading.
In order to lead, a manager must first master the basic functions of management. In his article, Justice Walton (2005) states that there are four functions of management:
- Short and Long Term Planning.
- Organizing a line or staff.
- Directing (taking charge of a department or organization and controlling).
- Implementing various techniques for managerial control.
Managers are supposed to delegate duties, not perform those duties. Moreover, a manager usually has the responsibility of choosing the people that will be doing the work. This means that the manager is in charge of hiring, firing, training and disciplining employees. Because of this, managers are also responsible for the work that the group performs. To ensure that the group is meeting consistent standards of quality, a manager must be able to motivate people and provide them with a sense of accomplishment. This means that managers need to communicate the big picture to employees by linking their role to the enterprise's main function.
One factor that determines how a manager will perform these functions is his or her personality. A person's temperament, character and personality are directly related to how he or she will not only manage, but also lead. Another important factor is a manager’s emotional intelligence (Boyatzis, Good & Massa, 2012; Davis, 2011). There are certain traits that allow one to be an effective leader. Leaders must be able to work with others and show employees that their role does make a difference. To do this, managers must be positive thinkers and perform their role with energy. In so doing, they will instill energy in the team. Some of the traits that will enable a manager to lead include integrity, pride, sincerity, curiosity, passion and courage (Walton 2005). These traits will be further discussed elsewhere in this article.
Indicators of Successful Management
There are ways to determine if a company or enterprise is being successfully managed. Success usually manifests itself in results and this normally is reflected by financial outcomes, such as profit in a sales organization. This can also be reflected by number outcomes in an educational setting - such as the test scores of a particular grade level or the percentage of students graduating in a school district. Such results are also referred to as quantitative results and while these are important, there are also other results that need to be reviewed: qualitative results. These results can be reflected in a business enterprise by employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction, quality control, customer retention, and employee retention. Charles Kerns contends that there are six dimensions of quality results: (i) results need to be values driven, (ii) results should be grounded in ethical behavior, (iii) results must be related to the overall purpose of the entity, (iv) results need to be geared toward learning, (v) results must be able to be measured, and (vi) results need to provide a balanced perspective - both quantitative and qualitative, in determining the success of the enterprise (Kerns 2005).
Importance of Core Values
It is becoming more evident that the success of businesses, educational institutions, hospitals, healthcare providers, not for profit organizations, government agencies, and any other group dynamic where people are working toward a common goal is directly related to the entity's values. This is reflected in both quantitative and qualitative results. A sales enterprise that is lacking a core set of values may be able to sustain itself in the short run, but at the end of the day, its long-term success will be the result of actions that are rooted in a set of core values. Adhering to a set of values lends itself to actions that are constructive and ethical.
Since values are directly related to the long-term success of an enterprise, these values must first be identified and then become part of the entity's basic function. There should also be a means to ensure that these values are adhered to over time. In order for a manager to achieve this, he or she must follow those values. In so doing, managers set an example for the group and thereby gain credibility.
Once a set of core values has been established, the attitudes and behaviors that arise should be grounded in ethical behavior. Ethics has become a buzzword in the wake of the financial accounting scandals that arose not so long ago (for companies like ENRON), but ethical behavior in the long run will enable an organization to sustain qualitative and quantitative results. It is ultimately the responsibility of managerial leaders to adhere to standards of ethical conduct. A manager can lead the way by being truthful, having integrity, extending kindness, treating staffers with fairness, taking responsibility for his or her actions, and for the performance of the group, and finally treating others with respect. In the end, a leader must have integrity and his or her effectiveness and leadership will be affected by whether the staff believes in a manager's integrity.
Creating a Successful Environment
In addition to adhering to a set of values and acting ethically, a leader must be able to link the results of the enterprise and its people to the organization's purpose. According to Kerns (2005), "without a positive connection between work and organizational purpose - what we do each day becomes less meaningful."
Making Employees Matter...
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