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Peroxisomes, which are organelles that are found in nearly all eukaryotic cells, are involved in the breakdown of very long chain fatty acids through beta-oxidation. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a peroxisomal disorder that affects the human nervous system. It is a rare, genetic disorder that leads to progressive brain damage, failure of the adrenal glands, and eventually death. The axons of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems are insulated by a fatty tissue called myelin, and it is this myelin sheath that is damaged in adrenoleukodystophy. When the myelin has been damaged, nerves are unable to aid in the conduction of an impulse.
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