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A "hypothesis" is ones best guess based on both qualitative and quantative observations (maybe earth is flat as example); A "theory" is a a 'former' hypothesis that has been tested and verified as valid (flat did not make it as example); a Law (could have started as a theory) can be such because it is 'older than dirt' and has 'always' been that way (gravity as fundamental example). Controlled conditions are ones you have the ability and/or need to closely regulate, usually while you are busy checking out a hypothesis-theory-law (temperature as example). It is important to mention that in order to be a 'bonified' any of these; (other than fundamental); the basic qualification is 'IT' must be FULLY capable of being tested and proven FALSE!
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