why sodium has valency 1 and chlorine also 1?

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Sodium has atomic mass 23, atomic number 11.

Chlorine has atomic mass 35 ,atomic number 17.

When we write electronic configuration

for Sodium Na - 2,8,1

Chlorine   Cl - 2,8,7

Both Na and Cl  require 1 electron either to loose or to gain ,so they can attain stable configuration.

Therefore  Na has +1 and Cl -1 valency

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