Why must the functional areas of an organization be integrated during the four phases of strategic management? 

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The characteristic functional areas of an organization constitute the areas of:

  1. Accounting
  2. Human Resources
  3. Customer Service
  4. Marketing

They can include more or less areas, depending on the type of organizational structure being employed.  The four phases of strategic management deal with:

  1. Formulation
  2. Implementation
  3. Evaluation
  4. Modification

The reason why the functional areas of an organization have to be integrated is so that strategic management functions can be properly coordinated and incorporated. Strategic Management, in its various phases combines all the key elements within an organization in order to come with efficient outcomes. 

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