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There is no specific reason given for Montresor's actions. He spells out his personal justification in the famous first line of the story:
The thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as I best could, but when he ventured upon insult I vowed revenge.
(Poe, "The Cask of Amontillado," eNotes eText)
Since both Montresor and Fortunato are wealthy members of the upper-class, it can be inferred that they strive for the same status and recognition in society. Perhaps Fortunato blocked Montresor from an honor, or took his place in some fashion; it is seen later that Fortunato is a member of the Masons and Montresor is not, which could show how Fortunato is seen by the public in a higher status. The insult, which pushed Montresor over the edge, could have been aimed at himself, or at a member of his family. Montresor here seeks to repudiate Fortunato, but in his own way, secretly, so only Fortunato knows how and why he was killed.
Montresor seeks revenge because Fortunato has insulted him. Although insult seems like a small measure for incentive in murder, Montresor seems to be extremely sensitive to verbal abuse rather than physical, as he says in the first line, "the thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as I best could, but when he ventured upon insult, I vowed revenge.".
it is not clear why Montresor wants revenge but all the reader knows is that Fortunato did something to Montresor and Montresor wants revenge.
he seeks revenge because fortunado unsulted him
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