we could see that some countries are still trying to develop nuclear weapon. that's still considered providing serious threat to human. why don't countries made an alliance to make a collective defence mechanism to protect themselves instead of doing nuclear proliferation then?
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From the point of view of international relations theorists, this is because most countries still act from a realist perspective. This means that they do not trust that other countries' motives are good. They worry about what other countries are able to do, not what they say they will do.
If countries could trust one another, then a sort of collective security might be possible. However, the countries that are trying to proliferate do not trust other countries to leave them alone. Either that, or they themselves wish to attack other countries.
One way or the other, nuclear proliferation continues because not all countries trust each other and so countries continue to want to be able to deter one another.
I believe that countries may feel the need to have nuclear weapons because in a way these kinds of weapons are a means of protection. Say for example Country A attacks Country B with nuclear weapons. If Country B has no nuclear weapons then they have no real means of retaliation. Basically is what I am saying is that a country may be less likely to carry out a nuclear attack on another country in fear of that country using nuclear weapons back.
I am not sure that it is possible for countries to make an alliance towards forming a collective defense mechanism. What exactly would they have to protect themselves from? Never in history have all countries trusted each other and I doubt they ever will completely although it would be nice.
Let's take a different look at the issue. If I were Iran, I would look to the west and see an army of 75,000 soldiers from a country that doesn't like me, wants sanctions imposed on me, and hasn't traded with me in 30 years. I'd look to the east and see an army from that very same country with another 80,000 troops. The last country in the so called Axis of Evil not to have nuclear weapons was invaded and conquered. So why wouldn't I develop them and test one to prove to the world that no one could invade me without a very high price? A nuclear weapon gets your country instant respect.
I agree with post 5. Most countries that are interested in nuclear weapons are doing so because it is the quickest and simplest way to get power. They cannot grow large armies or wealth, and are not respected politically. It's like the man that robs the convenience store with a gun. Without the gun, the man could not convince anyone to give him anything. With the gun, everyone is scared and just wants to appease him as much as possible as quickly as possible.
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