Why did Japan and Italy oppose the Treaty of Versailles?
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The Italians, who were initially part of the old Triple Alliance, had entered the war due to promises of territorial gains from Austria. These agreements, made in the secret Treaty of London in 1915, posed a major problem after the war's end. In short, Italian nationalists were angered by the refusal of the Big Three, especially Wilson and Clemenceau, to honor these claims. Technically, the Italians were not as affected by the Treaty of Versailles, which concluded a peace with Germany, as they were by the Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye, which made peace between the Allies and Austria.
Japan, on the other hand, was unhappy with the refusal of the other powers to accept a provision that included a recognition of racial equality among all of the members of the League of Nations. Like Italy, they were also unsatisfied with their territorial gain as a result of the war. They acquired some of Germany's island colonies as well as the Shantung peninsula, but wanted more territory, particularly in China.
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