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As with a lot of things in history (especially ancient history like that) it is not entirely clear why the Harappan civilization disappeared.
The most common explanation is that the civilization disappeared because the region was invaded by nomadic people from outside the area. Specifically, it is believed that Aryan, cattle-raising nomads invaded the area.
However, it is now thought (by some scholars) that the civilization had started to disappear before the invasions. Scholars speculate that this happened because of environmental degradation. They think that the soil quality might have declined or the course of the Indus River might have changed. Either could have made the people leave in search of better land to farm.
Harappan civilization (so called because Harappa was one of its major cities) originated around 2500 BCE in the northwestern section of the Indian subcontinent in what is now Pakistan, along the Indus River.
No one precisely knows why Harappan civilization disappeared. It was replaced by a period in which Indo-European invaders and migrants poured into India and began to mix with local populations. A new civilization phase and a partial relocation occurred as a result.
Reasons for the decline of this civilization are open to speculation, but could involve abnormal flooding and/or the appearance of warlike nomads around 1800 B.C.E.
This civilization was very organized and was thought to have no social classes. It is thought that it was an urban civilization although no one is really certain.
There are many theories as to why the civilization disappeared. One thought is that they just simply moved into another area. This could be due to factors such as poor agriculture. Other civilizations began to move in and eventually took over. This is the more popular theory.
Another theory is that there was a violent overtaking of the Harappan civilization. It is possible that another civilization came in and basically killed and burned everything and rebuilt the area for themselves.
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