Who led the South under President Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction plan?
what events during reconstruction led toward full citizenship for african americans? wha events led to movement away from full citizenship for african americans?
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Under President Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction plan, the mass of southern whites were allowed to swear their future loyalty to the Union. In return, they received amnesty and pardons that restored thier civil and property rights. They were also to reconstruct their own state governments.
John attached certain conditions to this procedure. He excluded fourteen classes of Southerners from taking the loyalty oath, including the Confederacy's civil and military officers and all Confederate supporters who owned taxable property valued at $20,000 or more. Thus, he struck at the planter aristocracy. He did not permanently exclude the excepted classes, however; he allowed them to apply to him personally for thier pardons.
Johnson's pardoning policy gave Confederate leaders a chance to hold on to power in the South. During the summer of 1865, hundreds of them traveled to Washington for their special pardons. In little less than a year, the President granted just over 7,000 pardons, an average of over twenty a day. He kept up that pace for another year, then began issuing blanket pardons so that by the time he left office, he had pardoned all but a handful of ex-Confederates. As a result, reconstruction tended to slip into the hands of the South's wartime leaders (The Dividing and Reuniting of America, 1848-1877, 2nd ed., by George T. McJimsey, p. 136-137).
The 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments gave citizenship rights to blacks. The Republican Party organized these new citizens to vote Republican and took control of the governments of the southern states. As soon as the Republican military occupation forces were removed from the South, White Southerners, who naturally hated the Republican Party, took measures to keep blacks from voting so as to regain control of their state governments away from the Republican Party.
Andrew Johnson was a big supporter of Lincoln's 10% Plan and immediately crossed swords with Radical Republicans in Congress. The quick readmission of southern states led to most of the offices being retaken by former Confederates, including Vice President Alexander Stephens.
While the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments were added to the Constitution abolishing slavery, giving freed slaves citizenship and equal protection under the law, and even extending voting rights to black males, southern society easily and successfully resisted these advances. The Union Army offered minimal protection from the Ku Klux Klan, and all southern states passed laws called Black Codes which effectively nullified any civil rights gains former slaves had made.
Under Andrew Johnson's plan (which did not last very long because it made Congress angry) the South was going to be pretty much controlled by the same kinds of people who had led it before the Civil War. Johnson's plan was not meant to do this, but that is the effect that it had. Partly because of this the Radical Republicans in Congress got very upset and forced their own version of Reconstruction into place.
Main events leading to full citizenship were the 3 Civil War Amendments and maybe the KKK Act.
Stuff taking away from full citizenship was the end of Reconstruction in 1877.
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