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The use of medicine and entomology in criminal cases can be traced as far back as 13th century China, when an investigator managed to match the sickle that was used in a murder. The Argentine scientist and policeman Juan Vucetich was the first man to use fingerprinting techniques to solve a crime in the 1890s. The French army surgeon Abroise Pare studied internal organs for their relationship in violent deaths in the 16th century. The Italian surgeons Fortunato Fidelis and Paolo Zacchia studied structural changes that occurred in a diseased body, while the French doctor Fodere and the German physician Johann Peter Franck wrote early forensic casebooks in the late 18th century. Several chemists, including Sweden's Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Germany's Valentin Ross and England's James Marsh, all detected poisons as the causes of death in the 18th and early 19th centuries. The first school of forensic science--the Institut de Police Scientifque--was founded by Rodolphe Archibald Reiss at the University of Lausanne (Switzerland).
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