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The raw materials required for manufacturing of cement are calcium carbonate, silica, alumina and iron ore. Due to environmental concerns industrial by-products and solid wastes like Pulverised Fly Ash (PFA) are also used as additives or to replace some natural raw materials in the process. The process of manufacture is energy intensive and there are environmental concerns due to the particulate emissions involved. The ceramics are of various types but mainly consists of aluminium oxide, zirconium oxide, silicon dioxide although metal, composite based varieties are also in use. Special classes with carbides, titanates, ferrites and nitride bases are processed for specific applications.
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