Which are the proper conditions for the process of nutrition of microorganisms?

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versatilekamini's profile pic

versatilekamini | College Teacher | (Level 1) Valedictorian

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Depending on the source of energy, organisms can be classified as phototrophs and chemotroph.Phototrophs are organisms that directly utilize the energy of solar radiation for photosynthesis.Chemotrophs obtain their energy from chemical compounds. Majority of bacteria are heterotrophic incapable to manufacture their own food. For that they have to live either as parasites or saprophytes.Only a few bacteria contain photosynthetic pigments and can manufacture their own food.Such forms are called autotrophic.Thus,considering mode of nutrition two categories can be maintained. 1.Heterotrophic bacteria 2.Autotrophic bacteria

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giorgiana1976 | College Teacher | (Level 3) Valedictorian

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To ensure the life of microbial cells, micro-organisms are using from the natural environment nourishing substrates or food.The food means any medium on which micro-organisms can take action and to ensure that energy and all components necessary to biosynthesis of cellular components.

To use this medium as a source of nutrition in the microbial cell, by genetic and catabolic pathway, it regulates cell metabolism that allows adaptation to environmental conditions. In this sense microbial cells can synthesize adaptive extracellular enzymes that produce  hydrolysis of nutrients  and transport of nutrients into the cell and their conversion.

Nutrition conditions for the process are:

  •  In nutrient medium, microbial cells must enjoy conditions compatible with life;
  • environment must provide the following nutritional components: water, carbohydrate sources-major sources of energy supply , nitrogen sources, mineral sources, growth factors;

In the absence of water, cell  will not be able to feed, water making soluble environmental compounds, providing transport and transformation within the cell.

  •  aggregate water-soluble nutrients must be in a similar concentration to that available in cytoplasm, in order to avoid hypertonia of nutritional environment. Therefore culture media for growing micro organisms have a concentration of 3 to 15% rendering soluble nutrients.
  • environment must be characterized by a certain pH, a specific oxidation-reduction potential, favorable to growth and multiplication of cells;
  •  Lack of toxic substances from environment or not to be possible for the processing of nutrients from the environment to form toxic substances.

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