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Well, that would be "d. portraiture." The Koran forbides the portrayal of the human form. The other three answers are all things medeival Islam advanced. Algebra, for example comes from the title of Hidab al-jabr wal-muqubala by the 9th century Iraqi mathematician Muhammed ibn-Musa al-Khowarizmi (although the basis of this math form was invented by Diophantus, n Alexandrian Greek of the 3rd century). Medical pioneers in medeival Islam included Abul Qasim al-Zahravi, the "father of surgery," and Al-Razi, a 9th century Iranian.
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