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The "Quiet Revolution" was a period of rapid reforms that occurred in Quebec under the leadership of Jean Lesage in the years 1962 to 1966. Broadly speaking, these reforms amounted to the liberalization and the modernization of the Quebec state. Reforms included the secularization of the state educational system, which had previously been controlled by the Roman Catholic Church, electoral reforms, and the development of a modern, Western welfare state. This included a rapid expansion of bureaucracy as state-run agencies developed to address not just education but health care, working conditions, energy, old-age pensions, and so on. The secular, liberal nature of these reforms accompanied, and contributed to, the rise of a new form of Quebecois nationalism, one which saw French-speaking officials replacing English-speakers in government, and a general, peaceful resistance to the expansion of the federal powers of the Canadian state.
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