What's the term for the place soldiers could go when they would get time off of battle?
This would happen a long time ago when the soldiers would get a break and go to a place where they would get cleaned up and rest. If you've seen the young Indiana series for school or something, there is an episode at the battle of Somme where this happens.
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There's not really any one answer to your question because the availability of the kind of places you mention has been different in different wars and in different places.
You mention the example from the show "Young Indiana Jones" where he is at the Battle of the Somme. This battle was part of WWI. During that conflict, the Allied Powers' armies set up what were called "rest stations" to provide the type of thing you're talking about. Open the file I linked to and search for "rest" to find a bit about them.
Another term you may be thinking of is "R&R" which stands for "rest and recreation." This refers to time when American service members would be allowed to leave the country where they were fighting for a week or so of vacation. This is particularly associated with the Vietnam War.
"On leave" is another good one. It's not a place, but rather it is official permission granted to be temporarily relieved of one's military duties. One can be given a leave for a variety of reasons. Eventually, however, one must return until one's tour of duty is over. Here are the official regulations in pdf:
I agree with one of your other posts - R&R (rest and relaxiation). Check out M*A*S*H; it has several references to different characters taking R&R.
R and R
Rest and Recreation
This is not a "place" but soldiers go "on R & R"
R and R sounds reasonable for the name of the activity, but there is no fixed place where soldiers go for R and R...
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