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"Romeo and Juliet" is generally believed to take place in the fourteenth or fifteenth century. Most of the literature books that I have used and taught from have given the time period as the 1300's (fourteenth century). As an English teacher, I have been teaching the play for nine years now and always give the setting as the 1300s.
It is believed that Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet in the 1590s (most likely 1594). He wrote it during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. The play was probably published in 1597 and/or 1599. In fact, it was one of the first plays performed when theaters reopened after being closed due to the plague. It is assumed that Shakespeare took several years to write it but there isn't a consensus on this information. We aren't exactly sure about these dates. These are calculations and assumptions made by historians. It is known that Shakespeare wrote many of his plays between 1594 and 1603.
The story itself takes place in either the 14th (1300-1400) or 15th century (1401-1500). We know the month/season specifically. It took place in the summer, in the month of July. (In Scene III, it is mentioned that it is a fortnight and odd days away from Juliet's birthday which falls on "Lammas-eve" and that is believed to be in August or late July. A fortnight is two weeks.)
On a side note, it is thought that Romeo and Juliet is based on the real life story of two lovers who lived in Verona, Italy around 1303.
It's generally thought to be set in the 14th century, so the 1300s. Hope this helps.
It takes place during the black plague
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