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The basic cause of the Stono Rebellion was the fact that society in South Carolina was changing with large numbers of new slaves being brought to the colony. This influx put whites in fear of slave rebellions and led them to implement stricter controls on slaves. Paradoxically, these tougher measures ended up bringing about a rebellion.
As more slaves were brought to South Carolina, the population came to have a very high percentage of slaves who were relatively new to the colony. Whites feared these new slaves and feared that outside agitators like the Spanish would foment rebellion. Eventually, a smallpox outbreak (and the deaths it caused) combined with news of conflict between Spain and England to encourage a group of slaves to rise up in hopes of killing whites and escaping to Spanish Florida.
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